Gallia Belgica

Ambiorix rex Tungrorum

G

FGC6618

Gallia Belgica

Eburones et Atuatuci 60 BC - deinde Tungri

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The Benelux clade

G-FGC6618 /FGC6666

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This very old and very small clade has only three families whose ancestors lived in the Meuse valley. Their common ancestor lived in Roman times or at the latest in the early Middle Ages. He must have lived in this Meuse valley .

For a side branch we have to go back an incredibly long time, more than 7000 years. How is it possible that all the side branches who have been there of course in these many thousands of years have all died out. We can only understand that when they have lived very isolated in a small, probably less accessible area. I am thinking here of an island in the region where they came from, somewhere in the Mediterranean, because their distant origin lies in the Eastern Mediterranean.

The ancestor came from a population that, after the last ice age in Anatolia, was the first to start agriculture and animal husbandry. At that time, a group of his people moved into Europe and brought the Linear Band Culture there. Another group spread the Mediterranean Cardiac Impression Culture along the coasts of the Mediterranean; from which the culture of La Hoguette in which the Limburg Group is recognized separately.

It has not been shown that he belonged to one of those two groups, but it has not been proven that this is not the case. When and how our ancestor ended up in the Netherlands remains a matter of investigation. It is possible that he settled here in the Roman Age. After their service, legionaries were given a piece of land, usually in their country of origin, when it was in the empire, otherwise in the region where they had last served. Roman garrisons were stationed in the Maasdal.

He has not been shown to belong to either of those two Neolithic groups, but it has not been proven that this is not the case. When and how our ancestor ended up in the Netherlands remains a matter of investigation.

The absence of side branches is consistent with a history of many thousands of years of residence in a small isolated community with no population growth. The haplo group indicates an area near the Mediterranean Sea. It is quite possible that we are descended from a Roman legionary soldier. After their service, veterans were given a piece of land, usually in their country of origin when it was in the empire, otherwise in the region where they had last served. Roman garrisons were stationed in the valley of the Meusel.

Card. Impr. migrat. Carlos Quiles, Archaeology, Demic diffusion, etc, 2017

Migration map, the dates are before Christ (BCE) (1)

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Split in three in the time of the Merovingians
or perhaps many centuries earlier.

In Roman Times or Middle Ages our clade split in three. The Marres and Slootmaekers families in Maastricht, and Nolet in Namur. It may be that they originate from a joint ancestor. (3)

The three families each have their own defining SNP. (4)

G2a2a1a1b1 - FGC6629

The Dutch family Marres / Mares
Marres  FGC6628  —  Mares  Y89939

G2a2a1a1b2 - FGC34750

The Belgian family
Nolet

G2a2a1a1b3 - FGC42426

De Belgian family
Slootmaekers

These are there Haplotypes

DYS markers in blue field - DYS values in light yellow field - one genetic step higher in fawn - two steps higher in maroon - one step lower in light green - two steps lower in green.

  Name     Clade   393 390 19a 19b 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
  h4  
YCA
  IIa  
YCA
  IIb  
456 607 576 570 CDY
  a  
CDY
  b  
442 438
B. Marres FGC6628+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10
G. Marres FGC6628+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 17 33 39 11 10
A. Mares Y89939+ 14 23 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 12
G. Mares Y89939+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 32 38 11 11
F. Nolet FGC34750+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 17 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 28 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 10
M. Slootmaekers FGC42426+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9 9 11 11 23 14 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 37 11 10
STR marker values tested at Full Genomes and determined by YSEQ
of the three Y15220 :   Marres – Nolet – Slootmaekers

DYS markers in blue   -   DYS values in yellow   -   Not tested or no results in White.
One unit higher in fawn   -   two units higher in maroon   -   one unit lower in light green   -   two units lower in green.

  NAME   393 390 19 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
h4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Marres 14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 16 8 12 24 20 15 15 11 13 10 11 11 12
Nolet 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 16 22 29 12 12 13 14 11 12 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 0 20 22 15 10 16 8 12 23g 15 11 11 11 11
Slootmaekers 14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9 9 11 11 23 14 22 29 12 13 13 14 11 12 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 37 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 11 8 11 10 21 22 14 10 12 17 8 12 23g 20 15 11 11 11 12
Ancestral STR haplotype - Y14918 determined by YSEQ
  Full Genomes   393 390 19 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
h4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Ancestral 14 22 15 10 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 11 11 23 16 22 28 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 11 8 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 14 10 12 16 8 12 23g 20 15 13 11 13 10 11 11 12
Pre-ancestral 13 22 15 10 11 13 11 13 11 28 16 11 11 23 16 21 28 10 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 11 8 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 14 10 12 16 8 13 23g 21 14 13 11 14 10 11 11 12

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The STR Tree of the Benelux group
Genogram-Marres-Mares-Nolet-Slootmaekers

In the family Marres G and B have a common ancestor five generations ago. They both have one single mutation. Expect is also 1 to 2.

In the family Mares, A and G have a common ancestor 10 generations ago. A has 4 mutations and G has 3. It is expected here 3 or 4. This fits nicely.

The branches Marres and Mares have a common ancestor 15 generations ago. The number of mutations is, respectively, B 2, G 2, A 4, and G 3 mutations. It is anticipated here 5. This is clearly at all less then expected.

The families Marres, Nolet and Slootmaekers have a common ancestor that lived between 30 to 60 generations ago. Counting STR mutations over such a long time is irrelevant because of convergence, what means parallel and reverse mutations. We will see a seemingly small number of mutations and a seemingly minor genetic distance.

Genetic distance

ID  Mrr B   Mrr G   Mr G   Mr A   Nolet   Sltm. 
Marres-B 38 2 5 6 4 7
Marres-G 2 38 5 6 4 7
Mares-G 5 5 38 3 5 8
Mares-A 6 6 3 38 6 9
Nolet 4 4 5 6 38 5
Slootmaekers 7 7 8 9 5 38

In black the Genetic Distance. In green the number of markers used.

We can see that using STR mutations are useful for dating genetic distance between samples up to about 1000 years ago, but earlier than this, accuracy falls away, and using SNPs becomes the more reliable method.

The time estimated with STRs

ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A Nolet Sltm.
Marres-B 37 210 360 360 300 360
Marres-G 210 37 450 450 360 450
Mares-G 360 450 37 300 450 630
Mares-A 360 450 300 37 450 630
Nolet 300 360 450 450 37 300
Slootmaek. 360 450 630 630 300 37

The time in years genealogical

ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A
Marres-B 188 456 456
Marres-G 188 456 456
Mares-G 456 456 330
Mares-A 466 466 347

The time estimated with SNP's

ID  Y Tree  YFull indiv. YFull gem. R. Banks
Marres 1350 1958 1350 2000
Nolet 1350 1222 1350 2000
Slootmaekers 1350 931 1350 2000

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G-FGC6618_tree

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Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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