History of the Marres Family

Endnotes

wrestling-contract

Contract on papyrus
Egypt 3th century.
(GetTemplate, WordPress, 2014)

Alans

1. Tryphon, son of Andromenos, councilor at the court of the Cimmerian Bosporus Kingdom in the 1st-2nd century, as armored cavalryman in Alano-Sarmatian style, stele of Tryphon. Kertch, Crimea, Ukraine, 1st - 2nd century. (Back)
2. Fibula, Krim, Oekraïne, 1th- 2d centurie. (Back)
3. Christopher I. Beckwith Empires of the Silk Road, Princeton University Press, Oxfort, U.K., 2009, Cover illustration drawn by Donato Giancola. (Back)
4. Hans Wilhelm Haussig, Die Geschichte Zentralasiens und der Seidenstrasse in vorislamischer Zeit, Darmstadt 1983. (Back)
4. Frances Wood, The silk road, two thousand years in the heart of Asia, The British Library, London 2002, p. 29, 42-43, 50. (Back)
6. Mei Jianjun, professor University of Science and Technology, Beijing, personal letter via e-mail June 14, 2011; see also: Jianjun Mei, Early metallurgy in China: some Challenging issues in current studies in: Metallurgy and Civilisation, Eurasia and Beyond, London 2009. Op pag. 11, figure 5 staan gelijksoortige objecten. (Back)
6a. Bulat. A. Muratov citing D. Adams. (Back)
7. Frances Wood, The silk road, two thousand years in the heart of Asia, The British Library, London 2002, p. 61.
Zie ook: Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, pag. 20, 43, 47 en 50. (Back)
7a. Science 14 February 2014: Vol. 343 no. 6172 pp. 747-751 DOI: 10.1126/science.1243518. (Back)
8. Pierre Cambon, Jean-François, directeur Musée National des Arts Asiatiques-Guimet, Paris France, Verborgen Afganistan, Tentoonstellingscatalogus, Nieuwe kerk te Amsterdam, 2012. (Back)
9. Marcellinus Ammianus, 330-395, Res Gestae XXII 5. (Back)
9a. Marcellinus Ammianus, 330-395, Res Gestae XXXI 2, 13-17. (Back)
10. The hardened always fighting Alans Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (39-65), Bellum Civile sive Pharsalia X, 223. In the description of the civil war between Pompey and Caesar, he mentions the hardened always fighting Alans. (Back)
11. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Editions Errance, Paris 2005, pag. 46/47. (Back)
12. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Editions Errance, Paris 2005, pag. 46/47. (Back)
13. Strabo, Γεογραφια (Geografia), 1th century b.c., II 5, 7. He names them here οι βασιλειοι, The Royals. Herodotus, 'Ιστοριησ αποδεξισ, Histories, IV, 20. Herodotus writes that these Royals were a tribe of the Scythians. (Back)
14. Leri Tavadze, Frontier System of Georgia: Problems of the Northern Borders in Antiquity in Spekali #2 Georgian Studies. Spekali, Electronic bilingual scholarly peer-reviewed journal of the faculty of Humanities at Ivane Javakhisvali Tblisi State University. (Back)
15. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (ca. 4 v.c.- 65), Tragoediae, Thyestes, 369 koor: Reges conveniant licet ...... qui Caspia fortibus recludunt iuga Sarmatis ... In line 128 gets the North wind Boreas the epithet Sarmaticus. (Back)
15a. T. Flavius Josephus, The war of the Jews, VII, 4. (Back)
16. Harald Haarmann, Lexikon der untergegangenen Völker. Müchen 2005, p. 36 en 37, Alanen. (Back)
17. Marcellinus Ammianus, 330-395, Res Gestae XXXI 2-21: Proceri autem Halani paene sunt omnes et pulchri, crinibus mediocriter flavis, oculorum temperata torvitate terribiles et armorum levitate veloces. With Halani be here meant the Alani. (Back)
18. Detail halssnoer, Afganistan, Tillya-tepe, graf VI, second quarter 1st century AD., gold turquoise, National Museum of Afghanistan Sarmatian princess, her head had the characteristic distortion as was customary at Sarmatians. (Back)
19. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae XXXI 2-21. (Back)
20. Procopius Caesarensis (before 550-after 662), Υπερ των πολεμων λογοι Historia Bellorum, II 11-12, 29 en VIII 3,8,34, cited in: Vladimir Kouznetsov and Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Paris 2005. (Back)
20a. Eran Elhaik, University of Sheffield, Uncovering ancient Ashkenaz – the birthplace of Yiddish speakers, Atlas of Science, April 21, 2016; and Das R, Wexler P, Pirooznia M, Elhaik E. , Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to primeval villages in the ancient Iranian lands of Ashkenaz, Genome Biol Evol. 2016 Mar 3. ( Back)
20b. The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses, Eran Elhaik, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland USA. Gene study settles debate over origin of European Jews, AFP jan 2013. Abstract: ... the genome of European Jews is a tapestry of ancient populations including Judaised Khazars, Greco-Roman Jews, Mesopotamian Jews and Judeans ... their population structure was formed in the Caucasus and the banks of the Volga, with roots stretching to Canaan and the banks of the Jordan ... many things are unknown about the Khazars, whose tribal confederation gathered Slavs, Scythians, Hunnic-Bulgars, Iranians, Alans and Turks ... the tale sketched in the genes is backed by archaeological findings, by Jewish literature that describes the Khazars' conversion to Judaism, and by language, too .... Yiddish, the language of Central and Eastern European Jews, began as a Slavic language before being reclassified as High German. (Back)
21. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle. (Back)
23. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, p. 482 n.201, Here is stated that this name is only found in Hieronymus Chronicon. Hieronymus of Stridon, priest and papal secretary, lived from 347 to 420. (Back)
24. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae, XXXI, 12, 6. Victor nomine magister equitum, Sarmata sed cunctator et cautus. See also XXIV, 6,13-14. About his courageous behavior follows here first the translated text of XXIV 6, 13 and then the original text of 14. XIII Translated: They would even with the slain hordes have invaded through the gates the city if not General Victor, who had suffered an arrow wound to the shoulder had kept them with flailing and screaming because he saw the danger that the excited men hit within the walls would find no way out and would be reckless. surrounded by a force majeure.
The orignal latin text of XXIV 14: Sonent Hectoreas poetae veteres pugnas, fortitudinem Thessali ducis extollant, longae loquantur aetates Sophanem et Aminiam et Callimachum et Cynaegirum, Medicorum in Graecia fulmina illa bellorum: non minus illo die quorundam ex nostris inclaruisse virtutem omnium confessione monstratur. (Back)
25. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae, XV,15,16; XVI, 10,7 en 38. (Back)
26. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae XIX, 11. in the translation from Aart Blom. See also: Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Sarmates, Amazones et Lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, 2002, pag. 25. (Back)
27. Bibliotheca Augustana, Fachhochschule Augsburg, Deutschland, handschrift (manuscript) circa 430, Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam militarium utriusque imperii occidentis orientisque. The knowledge of all badges both civil and military of both the Western and the Eastern Empire. The text in the surviving manuscripts are transcriptions of the lost original manuscript, which was rich with illustrations including the Insignia viri Illustris Magistri Equitum, the insignia of the leaders of the various serving under the emperor equestrian units. (Back)
28. Frans Glazer, Die Goten und der Arianismus im Alpen-Adria-Raum in: Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, Bonn, 2008; Globasnitz (Karinthië, Oostenrijk), Gräberfeld Ost. (Back)
29. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Paris 2005. (Back)
29a. Archaeological site revealing 6000 years of occupation. Past Horizons. 1 November 2013, from INRAP. (Back)
29b. Image © Denis Gliksman, Inrap, 2013. (Back)
30. Yves Modéran, Die kontrollierte Einwanderung von Barbarengruppen in das Römische Reich (Deciticii, Tributarii, Laeti, Gentiles und Foederati), in Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, wissenschaftliche Red.: Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, Bonn, 2008. (Back)
31. Bernard S. Bachrach, A history of the Alans, p.40. Map 2, Northern Italy. (B.M.: The map is scaled and colored) (Back)
32. Genetically, this recently made plausible as in: I. Nasidze et al, Genetic Evidence Concerning The Origins of North and South Ossetians, Annals Human Genetics 68 (Pt6): 588/89. Ossetians are a unique group in the Caucasus, in that they are the only ethnic group found on both the north and south slopes of the Caucasus, and moreover they speak an Indo-European language in contrast to their Caucasian-speaking neighbours. We analyzed mtDNA HV1 sequences, Y chromosome binary genetic markers, and Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) variability in three North Ossetian groups and compared these data to published data for two additional North Ossetian groups and for South Ossetians. The mtDNA data suggest a common origin for North and South Ossetians, whereas the Y-haplogroup data indicate that North Ossetians are more similar to other North Caucasian groups, and South Ossetians are more similar to other South Caucasian groups, than to each other. Also, with respect to mtDNA, Ossetians are significantly more similar to Iranian groups than to Caucasian groups. We suggest that a common origin of Ossetians from Iran, followed by subsequent male-mediated migrations from their Caucasian neighbours, is the most likely explanation for these results. Thus, genetic studies of such complex and multiple migrations as the Ossetians can provide additional insights into the circumstances surrounding such migrations (Back)
33. Robert Nouwen, Tongeren en het land van de Tungri (31 v.chr.-284 n.chr., The title is somewhat modest, paragrafh 9.7 describes briefly the late imperial period (284-476 n.chr.) (Back)
34. Ramón Menéndez Pidal (1869-1968), Spanish philologist and historian. (Back)
34a. Procopius of Caesarea, History of wars, Υπερ των πολεμων, III 3, 2, names Geiseric Γωδιγισκλου, Godigisklou, the Romans subsequently write Godigisclus. and so degenerates a name; and III 5, 18-25. (Back)
35. Justine Davis Randers-Pehr, Barbarians and Romans, The Birth Struggle of Europe, A.D. 400-700, London & Canberra 1983. (Back)
36. Ernest Stein, Histoire des Bas-Empire, 1928, pag. 250-255 . (Back)
37. This is now a hamlet of a few houses here but formerly here sttd a church dedicated to the local holy Saint Irmundus. He is mostly depicted as a hermit with crook, dog and cattle. He would have lived in the 5th century. This place must have been in that time a site of respect. In Grevenboich a few kilometers away is found is the grave of a chieftain from that time called the man of Morken. In his grave was a shield, helmet, sword and spears. Remarkably, his clothing had a black and white checkered, zoom. (Back)
38. Olympiodorus of Thebes, 380-425, fragment 17. The place is indicated as Μουνδιακω, τησ ετερασ Γερμανιας, in latin this becomes: Mundiacum in Germania secunda. Ernest Stein, Histoire des Bas-Empire, pag. 558 calls this Muntzen in Tongeren. (He probably means Montenakens a former village in the Vroenhof of Maastricht). Bernard S. Bachrach, A history of the Alans, pag. 60, calls this Muntzen in Tongeren. (He probably means Montenaken a former village in the Vroenhof of Maastricht. Here is also a Montenaken just below Sint Truiden. However many historians think Olympiaddorus was mistaken and meant Μογουντιακω in Latin Moguntiacum and think therefore of Mainz a place where the Burgundians were later established. This place, however, lies in the former Germania Prima. (Back)
39. Nibelungenlied A medieval epic story of love and revenge, translated from the German, annotated and introduced by Jaap van Vredendaal, uitg. Boom, Groningen/Amsterdam 2011. (Back)
40. Bernard S. Bachrach, A history of the Alans, p.41. Map 3, Northeasteren Gaul. (B.M.: Locations colored) In France we find these names in Elsas, in Lorraine, Franche-Comté, the Ile de France, Brittany, Picardy and the Ardennes as: Allain, Allaines, Allaineville, Allaincourt (Ardennes), Alland'huy (Ardennes). To the Sarmatians reminds names as: Sermaine, Sampigny (of the sarmatian name Sambida), Sermoise, Sermier en Soissons. (Back)
41. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Editions Errance, Paris 2005, pag. 113 en 139. (Back)
42. Fibula couple with silver handles covered with gold plate, decorated with polychrome glass and grenades in smooth conversion (Fr.: pierres en bâtes où boîtiers individuels; Eng.: bezel setting). Find in Moult (Calvados), grave find: "Trésor d'Airan" circa 400-450, Dépôt de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie te Caen. (Back)
43a. The Hungarian Jászság Y-DNA Project of FamilyTree DNA. (Back)
43. Marcellinus Ammianus, 330-395, Res Gestae XXXI 2, 13-17. (Back)
44. Afranasyev G.E. et alii, 2015, New archaeological, anthropologicaland genetic aspects in the study of Alans from the Don region. (Back)
45. Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys, p. 150, 216, 229-230; Iron Age DNA from Europe and West Asia. Cited Mathieson (2015) and Afanasyev 2015. (Back)
45a. Iain Mathieson, Iosif Lazaridis, et alii, Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians, Nature 528, 24 December 2015. They were R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a1b-S441, R1a1a1b2a2a-Z2123, R1b1a2a2-CTS1078 and Q1a-F903. (Back)
46. Chang Hua'an, 常華安: The Eastward Migration of Sauromatians: The Most Suspicious Issue in Chinese History, ISBN 978-986-151-8, Taipei China. .... considering that the population of Sauromatians (about 600,000, excluding Scythians, 200,000) comprises only 1-2% of the total population of China when they entered China in 5th century AD, the distribution of Y chromosome haplogroup N among Sauromatians is relatively high, probably higher than 61.5% of that of Finland,
E-mail 5 maart 2015: I presume: Y chromosome haplogroups among Uyghur people in Xing-jiang as follows: R1a, 29.4%, should have descended from Tocharians (Guz and Kutsi), N, 4.8%, from Sauro people (Kachgar), G2, 1.6%, from Massagetaes, J2, 14.43%, from Saka, R1b, 6.41%, from Sogdians. (Back)
47. The following works served as the basis for the pages Alans, Sarmatians and Sarmatian traces.
  in order from recent to old:
- Chang Hua'an, 常華安, The Eastward Migration of Sauromatians, 敕勒人的東遷:中國歷史最大疑案,
  Taipei China, 2013.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, Deutschlands unbekannte Jahrhunderte, Geheimnisse aus dem Frühmittelalter, 2013.
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Sarmates et Alains face à Rome, Ie - Ve siècles, Illustoria, Clermont-Ferrand, 2010.
- Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing
  Procedure for Ancient Material, Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Forensic DNA Service, Prague (Cz.) and Hubert
  Koch, Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg (Germ.). Croat Med J. 2009 June; 50.
- Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, wissenschaftliche
  Redaction, Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, Bonn, 2008.
- Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, Cambridge University Press NY 2007.
- Walter Goffart, Barbarian Tides, The Migation Age and the later Roman Empire, University of Pensylvania
  Press, Philadelphia 2006.
- Alois Seidle, Deutsche Agrageschichte, Frankfurt am Main, 2006.
- Lupack, Alan, The Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend, 2005.
- Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle,
  Editions Errance, Paris 2005.
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Sarmates, Amazones et Lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, VIIe siècle av. J-C - VIe
  siècle apr. J-C
, Editions Errance, Paris 2002.
- Frances Wood, The silk road, two thousand years in the heart of Asia, The British Library, London 2002.
- Dr. Oric Basirov, The origin of the pre-imperial Iranian peoples, CAIS series of lectures SOAS, 26/4/2001.
- Agustí Alemany, Sources on the Alans, A Critical Compilation, Handbook of Oriental Studies, section eight, Central
  Asia, Brill, Leiden-Boston-Köln 2000.
- Robert Nouwen, Tongeren en het land van de Tungri (31 v.chr.-284 n.chr.. N.B.: The title is somewhat modest
  paragraaf 9.7 Briefly describes usefull the late imperial period (284-476).
- Jens Lüning, Albrecht Jockenhhövel, Helmut Bender, Tortsen Capelle, Deutsche Agrargeschichte Vor- und Früh-
  geschichte
, 1996.
- Elton, Hugh, Frontiers of the Roman Empire, Bloomington, 1996.
- Róna-Tas, András, Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian
  History,
Budapest, 1996 [English edition 1999].
- Roymans, N., ed., From the Sword to the Plough: Three Studies on the Earliest Romanisation of Northern Gaul,
  Amsterdam Univ. Press, Amsterdam, 1996.
- Tilmann Bechert, Die römische Reichsgrenze zwischen der Mosel bis zur Nordseeküste, Stuttgart 1995.
- C. Scott Littleton, Linda A. Garland, From Scythia to Camelot. New York-London 1994.
- Drinkwater, John and Elton, Hugh, Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?, Cambridge 1992.
- G.E.M. de Ste. Croix, The class struggle in the Ancient Greek world: from the Archaic Age to the Arab conquests,
- André Sikojev, Die Narten, Söhne der Sonne, Mythen und Heldensagen der Skythen, Sarmaten und Osseten, Köln
  1985.
- Hans Wilhelm Haussig, Die Geschichte Zentralasiens und der Seidenstrasse in vorislamischer Zeit, Darmstadt 1983.
- Justine Davis Randers-Pehr, Barbarians and Romans, The Birth Struggle of Europe, A.D. 400-700, London &
  Canberra 1983.
  London 1981. Zie Appendix 3, Settlements of Barbarians.
- Lengyel, A. and Radan, G. T. B., The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Budapest, 1980.
- Edith Ennen, Walter Janssen, Deutsche Agrargeschichte, Vom Neolithikum bis zur Schwelle des Industriezeitalters,
  1979.
- Hans Riehl, Die Völkerwanderung, Phaffenhofen/Ilm 1976 (In The Dutch treanslation of drs Margaretha Blok, De
  Grote Volksverhuizing).
- Grant, Michael, The Army of the Caesars, New York, 1974.
- Bernard S. Bachrach, A History of the Alans in the West, Minneapolis 1973.
- Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, New York, 1970.
- Otetea, Andrei, The History of the Romanian People. New York, 1970.
- E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, de l'état Romain à l'Etat Byzantin (284-476), Amsterdam 1968
  (French adaptation by Jean-Remy Palanque of Geschichte des Spätrömischen Reiches, vom römischen zum
  byzantinischen Staate
(284-476), 1928.
- Anonymus, Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam militarium utriusque imperii occidentis orientisque,
  circa 430, Bibliotheca Augustana, Fachhochschule Augsburg, Deutschland.
- Procopius CaesarensisΥπερ των πολεμων, De Oorlogen, 5th centurie.
- Anonymi Valesiani. I, 4th centurie.
- Marcellinus Ammianus, (± 330 - 400), Res Gestae
- P. Cornelius Tacitus (± 55 - 117), Annales, Rome 1th centurie.
- Flavius Josephus (Josef ben Matthitjahoe), The war of the Jews, De bello iudaico en Antiquitates Judaicae,
  Rome 1th centurie.
- Herodotus (± 485 v.c. - 420/425 v.c.), 'Ιστοριησ αποδεξισ, (literally translated:) Report of my research,
  mostly named: Histories.
- Decimus Magnus Ausonius, 310-393, Mosella.
- Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Tragoediae, Thyestes, 1th centurie.
- Strabo, Γεογραφια (Geographia), 1th centurie b.c.
- Diodorus Siculus, Διοδοροσ Ζικολοσ, Bibliotheca Historica. 1th centurie b.c.. (Back)

Archaeologic Discoveries

1. Titus A.S.M. Panhuijsen, Romeins Maastricht en zijn beelden, 1966, pag. 263, 264. (Back)
2. Titus A.S.M. Panhuijsen, Romeins Maastricht en zijn beelden, 1966, pag. 330-333, 431 433. (Back)
3. Wiedemann, Emperors and Gladiators, 53 noot 117 en 38-39. (Back)
4. Titus A.S.M. Panhuijsen, Romeins Maastricht en zijn beelden, 1966, pag. 32. (Back)

FGC6618

1. De tijden zijn berekend op de gecombineerde Big Y en FullGenomes resultaten berekend door YSEQ en Ray Banks. Ray Banks, coordinator ISOGG, It seems there was an attempt to validate a subgroup specific to Boed and Martin. But since there are no shared mutations, this could not succeed. So I have suspended this. I used the raw data file (BAM file) for each of you to determine you had clear negatives for the other man's unique mutations.
The time of 8200 years is calculated on the Big Y results of two M286 men. The time of 7200 years is calculated On FullGenomes results of three FGC6618/Y15220 men by YSEG, Ray Banks calculated here 7350 years. (Back

FGC6669

1. Cradle of Civilization, A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development, aratta.wordpress.com. (back)
2. Wikipedia.org, Hattiërs"; Hettiten. (Back)
3. Barry Cunliffe, By steppe, desert and Ocean, Oxfort, 2014. (back)
4. Email Ray Banks, 20 januari 2016: FGC6629 was found in Boed, FGC34750 was found in Mr. Nolet and FGC42426 was found in Martin. I have listed just a few of your unique mutations so we can keep track of them. I could not find any mutations that were shared by just two of the three men with sequencing. Because of some differences in the sequencing tests and my elimination of some mutations in duplicated regions of the Y that were reported, I am having a hard time determining a time relationship. But it seems all three of you share a common ancestor who lived perhaps 1500 to 2500 yrs ago. And so far the evidence is that the earlier ancestors lived in a small family-type group for a very long time.
It seems there was an attempt to validate a subgroup specific to Boed and Martin. But since there are no shared mutations, this could not succeed. So I have suspended this. I used the raw data file (BAM file) for each of you to determine you had clear negatives for the other man's unique mutations.
(Back)
5. Time claculation TFull. Ray Banks (ISOGG) calculates 4000 years because the Lenanese Chemini had 39 unique mutations and times each to about 100 years. (Back)

Litteratuur behorend bij Clade:
- Guido Brandt e.a., The genetic make-up of the Linear Pottery culture, lecture Annual Meeting European Association
   of Achaeologists, session: The bioarchaeology of the neolithic Carpathian Basin, Pilzen Czechia, 6 september 2013.
- Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs en steel, The Fate of Human Societies, NewYork/London, 2000.
- Edith Ennen, Walter Janssen, Die Grundlagen der Mitteleuropäicn Landwirtschaft im Neolithikum in Deutsche
  Agrargeschichte, Vom Neolithikum bis zur Schwelle des Industriezeitalters
, 1979.
- Qiaomei Fu, Revised timescale of human mtDNA evolution, Current Biology, 21 March 2013. Zie also: Dienekes
  Weblog 23 maart 2013.
- Jens Lüning, Anfänge und frühe Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft im Neolithikum (5500-22-v.Chr.) in Lüning /
  Jockenhhöve / Bender / Capelle, Deutc Agrargeschichte, Vor- und Frühgeschichte, 1996.
- Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys - The peopling of Europe from the first venturers to the Vikings, London 2013.
- Paul Mellars, The Upper Palaeolithic Revolution - Steven J. Mithen, The Mesolithic Age - Alasdair Whittle, The first
  Farmers
in Barry Cunlife The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe.
- Fernando L. Méndez et al., An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human
  Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree
. American Journal Human Genetics, Vol.92, Iss. 3, 454-459, 28 February 2013.
- The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, Immanuel Ness, 2013.
- Barry Cunliffe, By steppe, desert and Ocean, Oxfort, 201.
- J.C. Schalekamp, Bataven en Buitenlanders - 20 eeuwen immigratie in Netherland, 2009.
- Alois Seidle, Deutc Agrageschichte, Frankfurt am Main, 2006.
- ISOGG, Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2013.
- Met dank aan Google, Wikipedia en Eupedia voor litteratuurverwijzingen en afbeeldingen.

Far Forebears

1. Arzarello M1, e.a. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy), Naturwissenschaften. 2007 Feb;94(2):107-12.The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 en 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. (Back)
2. Picture from lucyonline. Bron UCM: Site of Atapuerca. (Back)
3. Adrien Rieux et al., Mol Biol Evol (2014) doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu222, Improved calibration of the human mitochondrial clock using ancient genomes; A. We estimated a split time between Homo neanderthalensis en Homo sapiens mtDNAs of 389 Kya [295-498 95% HPD]. This is consistent with the 407 Kya [315-506 95% HPD] estimates of Endicott et al. (2010); en B. Our estimate of 143 Kya [112-180 95% HPD] for the TMRCA of all modern human mtDNA is slightly younger but highly consistent with the 157 Kya [120-197 95% HPD] value obtained by Fu et al. (2013b). (Back)
4. Ann Gibbons, Science 2015; foto uit Ancient Origins. sept. 2015. (Back)
5 Bertila Galván et al., Early Neandertal disappearance in Iberia, Journal of Human Evolution, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol., 2014.06.002. (Back)
6. Tom Higham et al., The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance, Nature 512, 306 309 (21 August 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13621; en Joseph K. Pickrell, David Reich, Sankararaman et al., 2012, Green et al., 2010, Prüfer et al.,2014, Towards a new history en geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA in BioRxiv beta, March 21, 2014. (Back)
7. Cooper en Stringer, 2013; Meyer et al., 2012; Prüfer et al., 2014, Reich et al., 2010, 2011. (Back)
8. The earliest unequivocally modern Humans in southern China, Wu Liu, Mark Jan Sier e.a., nature, 2015. (Back)
9. Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys. (Back)
11. Andaine Seguin-Orlando, e.a. Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years. Science 346, 1113 (2014) (Back)
12. Cooper and Stringer, 2013; Meyer et al., 2012; Prüfer et al., 2014, Reich et al., 2010, 2011. (Back)
13. Eske Willerslev, University of Copenhagen, May 2016. (Back)
14. Philip R. Nigst et al. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment, 2014, 28 sept. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412201111. (Back)
15. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe, Qiaomei Fu et alii. Nature, 2 May 2016. (Back)
15a. Posth et al., Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe, Current Biology (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.037. (Back)
16. Craniometric analysis of European Upper Palaeolithic en Mesolithic samples supports discontinuity at the Last Glacial Maximum, Ciaraán Brewster,e al, Nature Communications 5, published 10 June 2014. (Back)
17. Museum De Koperen Knop [The Copper Knob Museum], Hardinxveld-Giessendam, Holland. (Back)
18. Cradle of Civilization, A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development, aratta.wordpress.com. (Back)
19. Farnaz Broushaki, Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943. (Back)
20. The genetic structure of the world's first farmers, Iosif Lazaridis et alii, BioRxiv, June 16, 2016. (Back)
21. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European, Iñigo Olalde et al. Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature12960.; Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Farnaz Broushaki, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943. (Back)
21a. Limburg. Een geschiedenis, deel 1_tot 1500, Paul Timmermnas et alii, KLGOG. Maastricht 2015.
    – Bulletin du Cercle archéologique Hesbaye-Condroz, Tome XXX, 2010, Le Néolitique ancien de Belgique. (Terug)
21b. A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman's leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing, Niall J. O'Sullivan, Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, EURAC research, 39100 Bolzano, Italy, School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. (Back)
22. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe,Christian Meyer, edited by Melinda A. Zeder, National Museum of Natural History, Santa Fe, March 3, 2015. (Back)
22a. Rössen keramik, Landesmuseum Natur und Mensch Oldenburg, Niedersachsenm, Dld. (Back)
23. Anthropology, Genetics & Human Biodiversity Blog. (Back)
24. Fanny Chenal, et alii, A farewell to arms: a deposit of human limbs and bodies at Bergheim, France, c. 4000 BC,Antiquity, a revieuw of World archaelogy. (Back)
25. Dusan Boric, The End of the Vinca World: Modelling the Neolithicto Copper Age Transition and the Notion of Archaeological Culture, Academia.edu, sept. 2015. (Back)
26. Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Wolfgang Haak, February 10, 2015, BioRxiv. (Back)
26a. Leendert P. Louwe Kooijmans, Onze vroegste voorouders, De geschiedenis van Nederland in de steentijd, van het begin tot 3000 vC, Amsterdam, 2017. (Back)
27. Suetonius,De vitis Caesarum, 121 NC. (Back)
28. Gaius Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, VI. (Back)
29. Lucius Cassius Dio, Ρωμαικη 'Ιστορια Romeinse Geschiedenis, AD. 192. (Back)
31. Collectie Gallo-Romeins Museum Kielenstraat 15 3700 Tongeren, België. (Back)
32. Bewerkte Afbeelding van Wikimedia Merovingian dynasty. (Back)
33. Gold coin, on the front is a stylized head turned to the right and the text TRIECTVFIT and on the other side is a cross on a globe with the text MARICVSMO, diameter 14 mm, weighing 1,314 grams, gold content 89 percent. Domaricus was Monetarius in Maastricht in the first half of the sevent century. (Back)
34. Merovingers in een villa 2 – Romeinse villa en Merovingisch grafveld Borgharen, 2012, R.C.G.M. Lauwerier et alii. Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur em Wetenschap. (Back)

3. Full Genomes, Januari 19, 2014, E-mail: Our expert Gregory's Magoon opinion: I ran some analysis using a CNV (copy number variantion) tool called FREEC. Basically, we can look at the number of reads in small windows and compare with a control sample (i.e. compute the ratio of binned reads). Using some of the intermediate output from that tool, I constructed the following graph, looking at the region in the neighborhood of DYS19 (b37 Y:9,521,934..9,522,128 according

RI426A - DYS19=15-15

G-PF3147

1. Tepecik - Çiftlik, Arkeolojik Arastirma Projesi, Archaeological Research Project (Back)
2. Kilinc¸ et alii, The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia, Current Biology (2016); . (Back)
3. Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Guido Brandt, Victoria Keerl, et al. Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization, bioRxiv first posted online September 3, 2014. (Back)
4. I. Lazaridis, et alii, Genome-wide data on 34 ancient Anatolians identifies the founding population of the European Neolithic, ASHG, october 2015, Baltimore, USA.. The show an Fst to the first farmers of Europe as well as to those of Germany 0.004 ± 0.0004 as those of Spain 0.014 ± 0.0009. (Fst, fixatie index, is een measure for geneticdifference in and between populations, this ranges from 0 no difference to 1 complete difference. (Back)
5. Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing Procedure for Ancient Material, Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Forensic DNA Service, Prague, Czech Republic and Hubert Koch, Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg, Germany. Croat Med J. 2009 June; 50 (3): 286-295. (Back)
6. Menabdishvili has about 144 private SNPs listed (FullGenomes, probably including medium quality) and Hendon about 90. They share only 4 SNPs. Usually BigY detects about half of one sample's SNPs, so they can probably share a maximum of 8 SNPs. If we use 75 years/SNP, it appears that the common ancestor lived 10800 years ago (144*75). Adding 600 years for the common SNPs gives 11400 years, which is the actual age of PF3177 indicated by YFull. (Information Julian Red) (Back)

Haplogroup G-M201

1. Eupedia.com - Europe - Haplogroup G2a Y-DNA. (Back)
1a. YHRD: 561 / 20047 = 2.8 %, Zhong (2010) 224 / 10134 = 2.2 %. (Back)
2. Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, et al. (2010) Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536. (Back)
3a Iosif Lazaridis et alii, The genetic structure of the world's first farmers, BioRxiv, June 16, 2016. (Back)
3b Cradle of Civilization, A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development, aratta.wordpress.com. (Back)
4. www.thegeneticatlas.com/G_Y-DNA.htm. (Back)
4a. Open-genomes.org, images G-M201 Frequency and Variance, Hovhannisyan et al, 2014. (Back)
5. Kalevi Wiik, Where did European Men came From ?, Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4:35-85, 2008, Table 7 Frequencies of the Haplogroeps of Y-chromosome DNA in Twenty-Three East-European Populations. Sources: Rootsi (2002), Rosser (2000), Laitinen (2002), Balanovsky (2008), and Nasidze (2004). N.B. : van hoog naar laag door mij genoteerd: Ossetians b 74%, Ossetians a 21%, Gagauges 13,8%, Romenians 5,6%, N.Russians 1,2%, S.Russians 1% en Moldavians 1%. (Back)
6. Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny, Paolo Francalacci, Laura Morelli, e.a., Science August 2, 2013. Vol. 341, pp. 565-569. (Back)
7. Alessio Boattini et alii, Uniparental Markers in Italy Reveal a Sex-Biased Genetic Structure and Different Historical Strata, Plos One, May 29, 2013 (Back)
8. Ray Banks, Haplogroup G Updates, June 8, 2013. (Back)
9 Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Country by Country, Wikipedia. (Back)
12. Romanian Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries: http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/romanians.html (Back)
13 Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Country by Country, Wikipedia. (Back)
14. Sena Karachanak et al, Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry, PLoS ONE, March 7, 2013. (Back)
15. Zonen van Adam in Nederland, Sahar Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn-Khosrovani, e.a., 2008. (Back)
16. For Belgium there is the DNA Project Oud Hertogdom Brabant, publicated 11 January 2013. It has 1058 participants of whome the great majority, 834 men, is from the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, a tiny part, 55 men, is Francophone Walloon, but also are included 159 Dutch men of the province Noord Brabant bordering Belgium.
The Belgium provinces Liege, Namur and Limburg have the highest rates G. Of the 124 men are 9 G, which is 7,3 %.
The Benelux Geographical Y-DNA Project of FTDNA counts 250 men of whome 15 are G man, that is6 %. (Back)
17 Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Country by Country, Wikipedia. (Back)
18 European Journal of Human Genetics 21, 415-422 (April 2013), Krysztof Rebala et alii, Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements. (Back)
20. Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny, Paolo Francalacci, Laura Morelli, e.a., Science August 2, 2013, Vol. 341, pp. 565-569. (Back)
21. Haplogroup G Newsletter for December 19, 2011. (Back)
22. https://sites.google.com/site/haplogroupgproject. (Back)
23 Haplogroup G project. See: Haplogroup G Categories and also Nonstandard markers G2a*. (Back)
24 Source: Theodore Kandell. (Back)
25. Ray Banks: Haplogroup G Updates, Febr. 10, 2013. I now have a 12,000 year age for all the groups within L140. This L140 category covers about 80% of all G persons in Europe. The Rootsi study last year postulated abt 10,000 years for this using mutations within STR markers as the basis of their calculations. But my calculation is based on an average 201 SNPs in two samples from Personal Genomes Project which these men fail to share with each other. Since they are from different branches of L140, this gives how long it was since these subgroups split from L140. Counting SNPs is considered much more reliable than using STR marker mutations. This is the most reliable calculation so far for this, but this process needs to be repeated just using the SNPs in the most reliable part of the chromosome to confirm the 12,000 figure. Z724 thus seems to have existed for about 9000 yrs as a tiny group before the major Z724 subgroups we know today branched off. (Back)
25a Farnaz Broushaki, Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent, Science 14 Jul 2016: DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7943.; Picture, Zagros Paleolithic Museum, Kermanshah, Iran. (Back)
25b Zuzana Hofmanová, Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans, PNAS, 2016. (Back)
26. Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, et al. (2010) Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536. (Back)
26a. Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing Procedure for Ancient Material, Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Forensic DNA Service, Prague, Czech Republic and Hubert Koch, Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg, Germany. Croat Med J. 2009 June; 50 (3): 286-295. (Back)
27. Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Guido Brandt, Victoria Keerl, et al. Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization, bioRxiv first posted online September 3, 2014. (Back)
28. New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing, in Nature Communications, februari 2012. (Back)
29. Rekonstruktion des Mannes aus dem Eis © Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter. (Back)
31. Markers determined by Forensic DNA Service, Prague, Czech Republic. (Back)
32. Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing Procedure for Ancient Material, Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Forensic DNA Service, Prague, Czech Republic and Hubert Koch, Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg, Germany. Croat Med J. 2009 June; 50 (3): 286-295. (Back)
39. For this paragraphs are inter alia the following works studied
- Christopher R. Gignoux et al., Harvard University Cambridge, USA, Rapid global demographic expansions after the origins of agriculture. "Comparisons of rates of population growth through time reveal that the invention of agriculture facilitated a fivefold increase in population growth relative to more ancient expansions of hunter-gatherers." in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011.
- Marcel Mazoyer and Laurence Roudart, Histoire des agricultures du monde. in the english translation by James H. Membrez, A History of world agriculture from the neolithic to the current crisis, New York 2006.
- Jens Lüning, Albrecht Jockenhhövel, Helmut Bender, Tortsen Capelle, Deutsche Agrargeschichte Vor- und Früh­geschichte, 1996.
- Edith Ennen, Walter Janssen, Deutsche Agrargeschichte, Vom Neolithikum bis zur Schwelle des Industriezeitalters, 1979. (Back
41. Guido Brandt e.a., The genetic make-up of the Linear Pottery culture, lecture Annual Meeting European Association of   Achaeologists, session: The bioarchaeology of the neolithic Carpathian Basin, Pilzen Czechia, September 6, 2013. (Back)
42. Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys - The peopling of Europe from the first venturers to the Vikings, London 2013, p. 150 e.a. (Back)

Haplogroups

17. Searching for Our Most Distant (Paternal) Cpusins in Cameroon, 14GG San Diego, Thomas Krahn, Bonnie Schrack, Forka Leypey Matew Fomine, Astrid-Maria Krahn.
The tree underneath I found on Wikipedia: (Back)

Y-DNA_Haplo-Trea
18. Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Guido Brandt, Victoria Keerl, et al. Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization, bioRxiv first posted online September 3, 2014. (Back)
19. Picture: Mikko Kriek, BCL Archaeological Support & Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Leiden, The Netherlands. (Back)
20. Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families, Anne-Mai Ilumäe. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 99, Issue 1, p163-173, 7 July 2016. (Back)
20a. familytreedna.com/public/POL-LITHNOBILITY- Background (Back)
21. LL. Kang et al., Y chromosomes of ancient Hunnu people and its implication on the phylogeny of East Asian linguistic families. Annual Meting American Society Human Genetics 2013, abstracts, 6 sept. 2013. (Back)
22. Yong-Bin Zhao, Ancient DNA Evidence Reveals that the Y Chromosome Haplogroup Q1a1 admixed into the Han Chinese 3,000 Years Ago, American Journal Of Human Biology (Aug. 2014). (Back)
23. Vladimir Gurianov, Dmitry Adamov, Vladimir Tagankin, Leon Kul, Clarification of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q1b Phylogenetic Structure Based on Y-Chromosome Full Sequencing, The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Tom 7, nr.1, 2015. ISSN: 1920-2997. (Back)
24. Adapted from: 400 thousand year old human mtDNA from Sima de los Huesos. Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12788. (Back)
24a. Genomic analysis of Andamanese provides insights into ancient human migration into Asia and adaptation, Mayukh Mondal et alii, Nature Genetics (2016) doi:10.1038/ng.3621. Received 31 December 2015 Accepted 17 June 2016 Published online 25 July 2016. (Back)
25. This world map of Y-chromosome haplogroups was posted on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Back)
26. G. David Poznik, e.a. Sequencing Y Chromosomes Resolves Discrepancy in Time to Common Ancestor of Males Versus Females, Science 2 august 2013, vol. 341, pp. 562-565. (Back)
27. Tom Higham et al., The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance, Nature 512, 306-309 (21 August 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13621; en BioRxiv beta, March 21, 2014, Towards a new history en geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA, Joseph K. Pickrell, David Reich, Sankararaman et al., 2012, Green et al., 2010, Prüfer et al.,2014. (Back)
28. Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys - The peopling of Europe from the first venturers to the Vikings, London 2013. (Back)
29. Melchior, Linea; Kivisild, Toomas; Lynnerup, Niels; Dissing, Jørgen (2008). Evidence of Authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age Skeletons Untouched by Humans for 1,000 Years, PLoS One. 2008 May 28; and
Hofreiter, Linea e.a. (2010). Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations. PLoS ONE 5 (7): e11898. doi:10.1371. (Back)
31. Bryan Sykes, DNA USA, A Genetic Portrait of America, New York - London, 2012. (Back)
32. Micro-geographic distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in the West-European Low Countries, Larmuseau, Maarten, Vanderheyden, Nancy, Decorte, Ronny, 3 Feb 2011. (Back)

33. Iñigo Olalde et al. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European, Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature12960. (Back)
34. Monika Karmin, e.a., A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture,, Genome Res. Published in Advance March 13, 2015. (Back)
35. Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Guido Brandt, Victoria Keerl, et al. Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization, bioRxiv first posted online September 3, 2014. (Back)
36. Esther J. Lee et al. Ancient mtDNA from Rössen culture in Wittmar, Germany , Archaeological en Anthropological Sciences, December 2013. (Back)
37. Ann Gibbons Three-part ancestry for Europeans, Science 5 sept 2014, Vol. 345 no. 6201 pp 1106-1107. (Back)
38. Brandt, Haak et al. and Bollongino et al., Ancient central European mtDNA across time.; Science 11 October 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6155 pp. 257-261. (Back)
39. Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, Cuba: Exploring the History of Admixture and the Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Using Autosomal and Uniparental Markers, Plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1004488. (Back)

Heraldry

1. La description des armes de la famille Marès par Cyril Marès, viticulteur de Mas des Bressades, dans sa lettre du 30 decembre 1997. En outre il écrit: Ma famille est originaire des bords de l''etang de Thau entre Agde et Sètre, dans le sud de la France. Des Marès sont cités depuis 1240 dans cette region et notre ascendance est connue avec certitude jusqu'au XVI ème siècle. (Back)
5. Miroir des Nobles de Hasbaye, par Jacques de Hemricourt, mis du vieux en nouveau Langage, enrichy d'un grand nombres des Figures en Taille-douce, par le Sr. de Salbray, Bruxelles, chez E. Henry Fricx, 1673. Dit prachtige in leer gebonden exemplaar bevindt zich in het Familiearchief. (Back)
6. J.Ph. Gramme, Recueil Héraldique des bourguemestres de la noble cité de Liège, Luik, 1720. (Back)
7. Deze volgende zeven baanderheren die afstammen van Dammartin of naaste verwanten zijn dragen allen verschillende kleuren. De heer van Seraing: blauw bezaaid met lelies, strijdkreet: Dammartin (Thierry Tabareau tweede zoon van Eustache de Haneffe en eerste heer van Seraing, leefde in 1312 ); de heer van Haneffe droeg hetzelfde wapen, met kwartier van Fagneule, strijdkreet: Dammartin (hij stierf in 1357); de heer van Oupeye: zilver bezaaid met lelies, strijdkreet: Dammartin (hij was een Dammartin de Warfusée maar noemde zich d'Oupeye); de heren van Antin droegen de wapens van Oupeye met een blauw kwartier; de heren van Thilice: droegen de wapens van Oupeye met een rood kwartier; de heer van Duras droeg: zwart bezaaid met gouden lelies, strijdkreet: Dammartin (Jean de Dammartin de Warfusée, leefde in 1316, huwde Alix, erfgename van Duras en stichtte zo een tweede geslacht Duras; de heer van Momalle voerde: rood bezaaid met zilveren lelies, strijdkreet: Dammartin. (Back)
8. Dit zijn Barveau, Bombaye, Bruninck, des Champs, le Chantemerle, le Cornut, Edelbampt, Fontaine, Harduemont, Haultepenne, Halendas, Hermalle (sous-Clermont), Jemeppe, Kerckem, Liers, Mombeeck, Marteau, Neufchateau heer van Abée (of Neufchastel), Neu(f)ville, Ordingen, Persant de Haneffe, Pepingen, Sefawe, Wouteringen, Waroux, en Wihogne. - Bron van dit geheel: Bert Barée, Het Oude land van Luik, enkele kenmerken van Luikse heraldiek op 'www.hetoudelandvanluik.be'. Zie ook bij: Bronnen en Litteratuur. (Back)
9. Le baron Léon de Herckenrode, Collection de Tombes, Epithaphes et Blasons de la Hesbaye, Gand, 1845. (Back)
10. Algemeen Rijksarchief België, Brussel, Oorkonden van Brabant, nr. 2923, zegelnummers 22.416. (Back)
11. Algemeen Rijksarchief België, Brussel, Oorkonden van Brabant, nr. 4012 en 4013, zegelnummers 25.663 en 25.720. (Back)
11a. Sceaux armoriés de Hesbaye, Emile Boulet et René Wattiez, 1986, A.É.H., Abbaye de Neufmoustier, ch. 241. (Back)
11b. Sceaux armoriés de Hesbaye, Emile Boulet et René Wattiez, 1986, A.É.H., Abbaye de Neufmoustier, ch. 66. (Back)
12. Armorial Général, J.B. Rietstap, Gouda, 1887. (Back)
13. Nobiliaire des Pays-Bas, Leuven 1760, p. 427. Armoriaux Liégeois, chevalier de Limbourg, 1934, p. 13. (Back)
14. Vierset-Godin, Les Bourgemesters de Huy, p. 30; le Fort, Epithaphes, 2e partie, nr. 911; Armoriaux Liégeois, chevalier de Limbourg, 1934, p. 13. (Back)
15. Publications de la Société Historique et Archéologique dans le Limbourg (PSHAL), tôme XXXVI, 1900, pag. 72. (Back)
16. PSHAL, tôme LXII, 1927, pag. 102, P. Doppler, Schepenbrieven van het Kapittel van O.L.Vrouw te Maastricht, nr. 460, 2 mei 1463, origineel op perkament, aangehecht het zegel van Wynant Moers, schepen van Veltweselt. Zie ook: J. Belonje, Genealogische en Heraldische gedenkwaardigheden in en uit de kerken der provincie Limburg, Maastricht 1961, Grafsteen van Hendrik Moers, schout van Veltweselt en Kesselt, gestorven 8 nov. 1667: Gedeeld: a. een klimmende leeuw; b. een dwarsbalk en in het schildhoofd twee rozen. (Back)
16a. Le baron Léon de Herckenrode, Collection de Tombes, Epithaphes et Blasons de la Hesbaye, Gand, 1845. Met name pag. 365-366 en 502-504. (Back)
17. Nederland's Patriciaat, 1961, jg. 47, pag.205-241. (Back)
18. H.J. Koenen, Het Geslacht de Marez, 's-Gravenhage 1898. (Back)
19. Ned. Patriciaat, 44, 1958, artikel Tak - de Maret Tak. (Back)
20. Repertorio Blasones, berustend in de Biblioteca Nacional te Madrid. Wapenbeschrijving Mares. Er is geen wapen Marres aangetroffen, terwijl de naam Marres wel spaarzaam voorkomt op het Iberische schiereiland. Wel is nog aangetroffen: Marré: en azur un castillo de oro. (Back)
25. The information of all distinguishing signs, both civil and military, of both the Western and the Eastern Roman Empire, Bibliotheca Augustana, Fachhochschule Augsburg, Deutschland, handschrift, circa 430, Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam militarium utriusque imperii occidentis orientisque. De kennis van alle onder­scheidings­tekens zowel burgerlijke als militaire van zowel het Westelijke als het Oostelijke rijk. De tekst in de overgeleverde handschriften zijn transcripties van het verloren gegane originele manuscript, dat rijk van illustraties was voorzien met onder meer de Insignia viri illustris magistri equitum, de onderscheidingstekens van de leiders van de verschillende onder de keizer dienende ruitereenheden. (Back)
51. HCL te Maastricht, Oud archief M'tricht, notaris P. de Marres, inv. nr. 1336, Testament Emerentia Stas geboren van Buel, 31 juli 1669, geopend 2 juli 1697. Het zegel bevindt zich op een testament dat hij in zijn functie van notaris opmaakte. Lakzegel 12 mm. in doorsnede. (Back)
52. HCL te Maastricht, archief L.v.O., schepenbank van Geleen, inv. nr. 1240, brief van Pau de Marres aan de schepenbank, 2 febr. 1701. Lakzegel 12 mm. in doorsnede. (Back)
53. HCL te Maastricht, Oud archief M'tricht, notaris Schaepen, inv. nr. 1738, Gezegelde volmacht van Elisabeth van Leeuwen-Marres, 19 nov. 1709. (Back)
54. HCL te Maastricht, Oud archief M'tricht, notaris Guichard, inv. nr. 2078, opening 29 mei 1765, Testament Elisabeth Busco d.d. 13 juni 1760. geboren Marres d.d. 13 juni 1760. Hierop een viertal zegelafdrukken met wapen Busco. (Back)
55. Zie de wapenbeschrijvingen van dit geslacht in de (genealogie van den Bosch. (Back)
60. Nationaal Archief te Den Haag, portef.nr. 5864, missiven uit Maastricht aan de Staten Generaal; gezegelde brief van Michael Mares aan de staten Generaal d.d. 5 februari 1762: "De ondergeschreven belove, mij verbindende bij deese, dat indien Haer Hoogmoogende mij gelieven te beneficeeren met de prebende van St Servaes vaceerende door de dood van wijlen E.D. de Mean, ick daervoor sal betaelen de somme van drie duisent Pattacons ofte seven duijsent vijff hondert gulden Hollands, doende de somme van twaelf duijsent gulden Maestrichter Cours en sulx met een geaccepteerde wisselbrief in de Hage te voldoen. M. Mares, priester uijt den Vroenhove. Aangehecht een lakzegel met afdruk van een volledig wapen. Het schild beladen met een kam, vergezeld van drie klaverbladeren. Helm en dekkleden. Helmteken: een klaverblad van het schild." (Back)
61. Jef Leunissen, Van Wilre tot Wolder, Uit het verleden van het hoofddorp van de voormalige Vroenhof, pag. 108: Michaël Marres legde op 9 februari 1798 te Maastricht toch de eed van haat aan het koningschap af. Hij stichtte te Wilre twee jaargetijden en schonk aan de kerk een zilveren kelk. Hij overleed op 14 juni 1818 te Wilre en werd in de kerk aldaar begraven. Hij werd ruim 90 jaar oud. N.B.: In de liassen van de Staten Generaal is te lezen dat hij 12.000 gulden bood. Van der Vreecken bood 13.920 gulden. (Back)
62. Vinder Bart Verheyen, Vondstlocatie: Winevenstraat 56, 3620 Lanaken (net tegenover het voetbalveld), vermeld op: DVVL de website Forum voor metaaldetective. (Terug)

Sarmatians

1. Dolfin fibula, gold, and rock crystal, long 7.8 cm, weight 29,7 gr. excavated in Nohaichynks'kyi kurhan at Chervone, Nyzhnehirs'kyi Rayon, Crimea, Oekraïne, in 1974, Sarmatian, late 1th or begin 2d century. (Back)
2. Spiral bracelet with animals frieze, gold with marquetry of uit turquoise stone and coral, broad7,5 cm, weight 420 gram, change discovery in Chochlač kurhan at Novočerkask, Rostov, Russia, in 1864, Sarmatian annimals style, 1th century. (Back)
3. Herodotus (485-425/20), 'Ιστοριησ αποδεξισ, Histories IV, 21 en 110. (Back)
4. Gaius Plinius Secundus maior (23 - 79), Roman army officer, litterateur, and scholar; Marcellinus Ammianus, 330-400, Res Gestae, 32,5. (Back)
5. Strabo (ca. 64 v.c. - 19 n.c.) Greek historian, geographer and philosopher, from his works is preserved Γεογραφια (Geographia). See Book XI, 8. (Back)
5a. Leonid T. Yablonsky - Extraordinary kurgan burial shines new light on Sarmatian life. Past Horizons. September 11, 2013. (Back)
6. Lexikon früher Kulturen, Joachim Herrmann, Bibliografisch Institut Leipzig 1984, band 1, p. 33, Alanen. (Back)
7. Necklace with animals frieze, gold with marquetry with turquoise stone and coral, cross-section 17,8 cm high 6,3 cm. weight 1.009 gram (net iets meer dan 1 kgr.), change discovery in Chochlač kurhan near Novočerkask, Rostov, Russia, in 1864, Sarmatian animals style, 1th century.
Litt: Scytthian Gold, Treasures from the Hermitage in Leningrad, Brussels 1991, inv. 155, 156 en 169. (Back)
8. Diodorus Siculus (1th century b.c.) Bibliotheca Historica Lib. II, 43, p 29. He recounts that the first Sarmatians came from Medes when they settled in the land of the Scythians on-Don. (Back)
9 . . . . considering that the population of Sauromatians (about 600,000, excluding Scythians, 200,000) comprises only 1-2% of the total population of China when they entered China in 5th century AD, the distribution of Y chromosome haplogroup N among Sauromatians is relatively high, probably higher than 61.5% of that of Finland, The Eastward Migration of Sauromatians: The Most Suspicious Issue in Chinese History, (ISBN 978-986-151-8), Taipei. (Back)
10. Herodotus, 'Ιστοριησ αποδεξισ, Histories IV 110-117; en Gaius Plinius Secundus maior, Naturalis historia, IV, 80, Rome 77. (Back)
11. Fragment of a mosaic floor with an Amazon, Turkey 4th century, marble and limestone, Louvre Museum in Paris. Antiquité Tardive. (Back)
12. Hérodote, Histoires III 94, VII 79, texte établi et traduit par Ph.-E Legrand, Paris 1949. Greek text. 'Μαρεσ'. In the second case, this became 'Μαρων' and in the third 'Μαρσι'. N.B.: Onno Damsté, Herodotos, 'Ιστοριησ αποδεξισ, Histories, Haarlem, Holland, 1978, translates these name as Maren and a second time as Marden. The story of the Amazons is in Herodotus IV 110-117. (Back)
12a. Marcellinus Ammianus, 330-400, Res Gestae. (Back)
13. P. Cornelius Tacitus (54/55 - 117), Annales VI 33-35. (Back)
14. Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Sarmates, Amazones et Lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, VIIe siècle av. J-C - VIe siècle apr. J-C, Editions Errance, Paris 2002. (Back)
15 Exhibition catalogue Limesmuseum Aalen, Zweigmuseum des Landesmuseum Stuttgart, Von Augustus bis Attilla, Leben am Ungarische Donaulimes, Theisss, 2000. (Back)
16. P. Cornelius Tacitus, Annales XII 29-30, C. Antistio M. Suillio consulibus (B.M.: 50 n.c.). (Back)
17. Titus Flavius Josephus (Josef ben Matthitjahoe), De bello iudaico en Antiquitates Judaicae, Rome 1th centyry. (Back)
18. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De vita caesarum, Domitianus 6,1. (Back)
18a. Inscription on a, presumed 3rd century, tombstone found in Ribchester: HIS TERRIS SIGITVR AEL MATRONA QVOND VIXIT AN XXVIII M II D VIII ET M IVL MAXIMVS FIL VIXIT AN L IVL MAXIMVS S C ALAE SAR CONIVX CONIVGI INCOMPARABILI ET FILIO PATRI PIENTISSIMO ET SOCAERE TENACISSIME MEMORIA P. "This earth seals up Aelia Matrona, who lived for twenty-eight years two months and eight days, and Marcus Julius, son of Maximus, fifty years old. Julius Maximus, singularius consularis of the Sarmatian Wing, husband of an incomparable wife, and son of a most devoted father, placed this in memory of the most steadfast of companions." (Back)
19. Grosvenor Museum, Chester, England. (Back)
19a. Zosimus, 5th centurie, Historia nova II. the year is unclear, it may also be 324. (Back)
20a Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae XVII 12, 2-3. (Back)
20. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae XVII 12-13. (Back)
21. Lellia Cracco Ruggini, Römer und Barbaren in der Spätantike, in Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, wissenschaftliche Red.: Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, Bonn, 2008. (Back)
22. Excerpta Valesiana, Origo Constantini Imperatoris (I,32), Sic cum his pace firmata, in Sarmatas versus est, qui dubiae fidei probabantur. Sed servi Sarmatarum adversum omnes dominos rebellarunt, quos pulsos Constantinus libenter accepit et amplius trecenta milia hominum mixtae aetatis et sexus per Thraciam, Scythiam, Macedoniam, Italiamque divisit. (Back)
23. Decimus Magnus Ausonius, 310-393, Mosella, p. 9. (Back)
24. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, pag.204-205; Ágnes Salamon cs., Pannonia, Fifth to ninth centuries in Lengyel, A. and Radan, G. T. B., The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, pag. 379, Budapest, 1980. (Back)
25. Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Sarmates, Amazones et Lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, pag. 55, 62, en 71. (Back)
26. Margrit Németh, Pannonien und die römischen Kaiser in: Von Augustus bis Attilla, Leben am Ungarische Donaulimes, Exhibition catalogue Limesmuseum Aalen, Zweigmuseum des Landesmuseum Stuttgart, Von Augustus bis Attilla, Leben am Ungarische Donaulimes, Theisss, 2000. (Back)
27. Ágnes Salamon cs., Pannonia - Fifth to ninth centuries in A. Lengyel, G.T.B. Radan, The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Budapest, 1980. (Back)
28. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, Carte Géografique IV (deels). (Back)
29. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, p. 482 n.201, states that this name is only found in Hieronymus Chronicon. Hieronymus from Stridon, priest and papal secretary, lived from 347 to 420. (Back)
29a. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae, XXXI, 12, 6. Victor nomine magister equitum, Sarmata sed cunctator et cautus. See also XXIV, 6,13-14. About his courageous behavior follows here first the translated text XXIV 6, 13 and then only of 14 the original. Translated: They would even with the hordes slain along the city have invaded if not General Victor, who had suffered an arrow wound to the shoulder had kept them with flailing and screaming it through the gates because he saw the danger that the excited men recklessly hit within the walls would find no way out and would be. surrounded by a force majeure 14. The ancient poets sing the duels of Hector and the brave Achiles and prices up in heaven; through the ages discussed with admiration Sophanes, Aminias, Callimachus and Cynaegirus, the stars of the Persian wars; not less sparkled during these days some of our brave warriors, as all will confirm that were witnesses of this.
The original Latin text of: XXIV 14: Sonent Hectoreas poetae veteres pugnas, fortitudinem Thessali ducis extollant, longae loquantur aetates Sophanem et Aminiam et Callimachum et Cynaegirum, Medicorum in Graecia fulmina illa bellorum: non minus illo die quorundam ex nostris inclaruisse virtutem omnium confessione monstratur. (Back)
30. Yves Modéran, Die kontrollierte Einwanderung von Barbarengruppen in das Römische Reich (Deciticii, Tributarii, Laeti, Gentiles und Foederati), in Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, wissenschaftliche Red.: Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, Bonn, 2008. (Back)
31. Marcellinus Ammianus, Res Gestae XIX, 11. translated in Dutch by Aart Blom. See also: Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Sarmates, Amazones et Lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, 2002, pag. 25. (Back)
32. Bibliotheca Augustana, Fachhochschule Augsburg, Deutschland, handschrift (manuscript), circa 430, Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam militarium utriusque imperii occidentis orientisque. The information of all distinguishing signs, both civil and military, of both the Western and the Eastern Roman Empire. The text in the surviving manuscripts are transcriptions of the lost original manuscript, which was rich with illustrations including Insignia viri illustris magistri equitum, the distinguishing signs of the leaders of the various equestrian units serving under the emperor. (Back)
33. Frans Glazer, Die Goten und der Arianismus im Alpen-Adria-Raum in: Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, Bonn, 2008; Globasnitz (Karinthië, Oostenrijk), Gräberfeld Ost. (Back)
33b. Image © Denis Gliksman, Inrap, 2013. (Back)
34a. Bernard S. Bachrach, A history of the Alans, p.41. Map 3, Northeasteren Gaul. (B.M.: Settlements colored ) In France we find these names in Elsas-Lorraine , Franche-Comté, Ile de France, Bretagne, Picardië et Ardennes as Allain, Allaines, Allaineville, Allaincourt (Ardennes), Alland'huy (Ardennes), and to the Sarmatians point names as Sermaine, Sampigny (from ther name Sambida), Sermoise, Sermier en Soissons. (Back)
34. H. Elton, Defence in Fifth-century Gaul, 165-176, in Drinkwater, John and Elton, Hugh, Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?, Cambridge 1992. (Back)
35. Lellia Cracco Ruggini, Römer und Barbaren in der Spätantike, in Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, wissenschaftliche Red.: Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, Bonn, 2008. (Back)
36. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Paris 2005. (Back)
37. Tilmann Bechert en Willem J.H.Willems, Die römische Reichsgrenze zwischen der Mosel bis zur Nordseeküste, Stuttgart 1995. The illustration is from the Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed in Amersfoort the Netherlands.
N.B.: Notitia Dignitatum Occidentis XLII Item praepositurae magistri militum praesentalis a parte peditum: - - - Praefectus Laetorum Lagensium, prope Tungros Germaniae secundae; - - -.
The location for this lagentium is not known, it was possible to castella Traiectum ad Mosam (Maastricht). According to the text of the Notitia Sarmatians were only stationed at Amiens. The text for the icon is in my view, inaccurate.
N.B.:The discovery by Guus Mares of this book, in particular pages 102 ff, brought solid ground under the hypothesis of a possible descent from the Sarmatians or Alans. (Back)
39. The following works served as the basis for the pages Alans, Sarmatians and Sarmatian traces.
  in order from recent to old:
- Chang, Hua'an,常華安, The Eastward Migration of Sauromatians, 敕勒人的東遷:中國歷史最大疑案, Taipei China, 2013.
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Sarmates et Alains face à Rome, Ie - Ve siècles, Illustoria, Clermont-Ferrand, 2010.
- Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing Procedure
  for Ancient Material, Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Forensic DNA Service, Prague (Cz.) and Hubert Koch,
  Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg (Germ.). Croat Med J. 2009 June; 50 (3).
- Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, wissenschaftliche
  Redaction, Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, Bonn, 2008.
- Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, Cambridge University Press NY 2007.
- Walter Goffart, Barbarian Tides, The Migation Age and the later Roman Empire, University of Pensylvania
  Press, Philadelphia 2006.
- Alois Seidle, Deutsche Agrageschichte, Frankfurt am Main, 2006.
- Lupack, Alan, The Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend, 2005.
- Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle,
  Editions Errance, Paris 2005.
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Sarmates, Amazones et Lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, VIIe siècle av. J-C - VIe
  siècle apr. J-C
, Editions Errance, Paris 2002.
- Frances Wood, The silk road, two thousand years in the heart of Asia, The British Library, London 2002.
- Dr. Oric Basirov, The origin of the pre-imperial Iranian peoples, CAIS series of lectures SOAS, 26/4/2001.
- Agustí Alemany, Sources on the Alans, A Critical Compilation, Handbook of Oriental Studies, section eight, Central
  Asia, Brill, Leiden-Boston-Köln 2000.
- Robert Nouwen, Tongeren en het land van de Tungri (31 v.chr.-284 n.chr.. N.B.: The title is somewhat modest,
  paragraaf 9.7 briefly describes also the late imperial period (284-476 n.chr.).
- Jens Lüning, Albrecht Jockenhhövel, Helmut Bender, Tortsen Capelle, Deutsche Agrargeschichte Vor- und Früh-
  geschichte
, 1996.
- Elton, Hugh, Frontiers of the Roman Empire, Bloomington, 1996.
- Róna-Tas, András, Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian
  History,
Budapest, 1996 [English edition 1999].
- Roymans, N., ed., From the Sword to the Plough: Three Studies on the Earliest Romanisation of Northern Gaul,
  Amsterdam Univ. Press, Amsterdam, 1996.
- Tilmann Bechert, Die römische Reichsgrenze zwischen der Mosel bis zur Nordseeküste, Stuttgart 1995.
- C. Scott Littleton, Linda A. Garland, From Scythia to Camelot. New York-London 1994.
- Drinkwater, John and Elton, Hugh, Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?, Cambridge 1992.
- G.E.M. de Ste. Croix, The class struggle in the Ancient Greek world: from the Archaic Age to the Arab conquests,
- André Sikojev, Die Narten, Söhne der Sonne, Mythen und Heldensagen der Skythen, Sarmaten und Osseten, Köln
  1985.
- Hans Wilhelm Haussig, Die Geschichte Zentralasiens und der Seidenstrasse in vorislamischer Zeit, Darmstadt 1983.
  London 1981. Zie Appendix 3, Settlements of Barbarians.
- Lengyel, A. and Radan, G. T. B., The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Budapest, 1980.
- Edith Ennen, Walter Janssen, Deutsche Agrargeschichte, Vom Neolithikum bis zur Schwelle des Industriezeitalters,
  1979.
- Hans Riehl, Die Völkerwanderung, Phaffenhofen/Ilm 1976 (Dutch translation by drs Margaretha Blok, De
  Grote Volksverhuizing
).
- Grant, Michael, The Army of the Caesars, New York, 1974.
- Bernard S. Bachrach, A History of the Alans in the West, Minneapolis 1973.
- Bernard S. Bachrach, Merovingian Military Organisation 481-751, Minneapolis, 1972.
- Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, New York, 1970.
- Otetea, Andrei, The History of the Romanian People. New York, 1970.
- E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, de l'état Romain à l'Etat Byzantin (284-476), Amsterdam 1968.
  (French adaptation by Jean-Remy Palanque of Geschichte des Spätrömischen Reiches, vom römischen zum
  byzantinischen Staate (284-476)
, 1928.
- Anonymus, Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam militarium utriusque imperii occidentis orientisque,
  circa 430, Bibliotheca Augustana, Fachhochschule Augsburg, Deutschland.
- Procopius Caesarensis Υπερ των πολεμων, the history of the wars , 5th centurie.
- Anonymi Valesiani. I, 4e eeuw.
- Marcellinus Ammianus, (± 330 - 400), Res Gestae
- P. Cornelius Tacitus (± 55 - 117), Annales, Rome 1e eeuw.
- Flavius Josephus (Josef ben Matthitjahoe), De bello iudaico en Antiquitates Judaicae, Rome 1th centurie.
- Herodotus (± 485 v.c. - 420/425 v.c.), 'Ιστοριησ αποδεξισ, Histories.
- Decimus Magnus Ausonius, 310-393, Mosella.
- Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Tragoediae, Thyestes, 1e eeuw.
- Strabo, Γεογραφια (Geographia), 1th centurie b.c.
- Diodorus Siculus, Διοδοροσ Ζικολοσ, Bibliotheca Historica. 1th centurie b.c. (Back)

Sarmatic Traces

1. Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Sarmates et Alains face à Rome, Ie - Ve siècles, Illustoria, Clermont-Ferrand, 2010. (Back)
2. Bernard S. Bachrach, A history of the Alans, p.40. Map 2, Northern Italy. (B.M.: map reduced in size and colored) (Back)
3. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Paris 2005. (Back)
4. Frans Glazer, Die Goten und der Arianismus im Alpen-Adria-Raum in: Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, Bonn, 2008; Globasnitz (Karinthië, Oostenrijk), Gräberfeld Ost. (Back)
4a. Vladimir Kouznetsov, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Alains, Cavaliers des steppes, seigneurs du Caucase Ie-XVe siècle, Paris 2005. (Back)
4b. Image © Denis Gliksman, Inrap, 2013. (Back)
5. Bernard S. Bachrach, A history of the Alans, p.41. Map 3, Northeasteren Gaul. (B.M.: Settlements colored) In France we find this names in the Elsas, in Lorraine, Franche-Comté, Ile de France, Bretagne, Picardie Les Ardennes as Allain, Allaines, Allaineville, Allaincourt (Ardennes), Alland'huy (Ardennes), the following names recall the Sarmatians: Sermaine, Sampigny (from Sambida), Sermoise, Sermier and Soissons. (Back)
6. Ágnes Salamon cs., Pannonia - Fifth to ninth centuries in A. Lengyel, G.T.B. Radan, The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Budapest, 1980. (Back)
7. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, Carte Géografique IV (deels). (Back)
7a. Elton, Hugh, Frontiers of the Roman Empire, Bloomington, 1996, p. 56.: .... it is clear that well over half of the sample of discharged legionaries remained in the 'frontier' area after their service. p. 57. .... most of these men settled close to their former stations. Most veterans retired to become farmers, though others became involved in commerce. p. 109. .... However, there is no trace of these settlers in the archaelogical record suggesting rapid assimilation of Roman customs. .... The settlement of large numbers of barbarians in the Roman empire was thus a constant process and not a new development of the late period.. (Back)
8. Justine Davis Randers-Pehr, Barbarians and Romans, The Birth Struggle of Europe, A.D. 400-700, London & Canberra 1983. (Back)
9. Justine Davis Randers-Pehr, Barbarians and Romans, The Birth Struggle of Europe, A.D. 400-700, London & Canberra 1983. (Back)
10. Reinhard Schmoeckel, Die Sarmaten - Vergessene Väter des mittelalterlichen Europa 1, Sachshsen, Thüringer,
  Schwaben - Einst vona Sarmaten beherrscht?, Das Frümittelalter in Deutschland neu gesehen. Bonn 2011.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, Die Sarmaten - Vergessene Väter des mittelalterlichen Europa 2 Die Geheimnisse der
   Merowinger, Die sarmatische Herkunft der Dynatie und eine folgenreiche Geschichtsfälsunh. Bonn 2011.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, König Chlodwig war kein Franke: Frankreichs und Deutschlands sarmatische Wurzeln,
   Bonn 2009.
- Forschungen zur Thidreksaga, Untersuchingen zur Völkerwanderungszeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa, Band 3,
   Die Wilkinensaga, Schlüssel zur unbekannten Frühgeschichte der Niederlande und Belgiëns? F. Die 'Franken'
   zwischen Troja und Tournai 3. Die geheimnisvolle Verwandlung der Sarmaten in 'Franken' und ihrer Fürsten in
   'Heilige Könige', Bonn 2006. (Back)
10a. Limburg. Een geschiedenis tot 1500, Paul Tummers c.s., KLGOG, Maastricht 2015. (Back)
11. Nibelungenlied A medieval epic story of love and revenge, translated from German, annotated and introduced by Jaap van Vredendaal, in Dutch language, uitg. Boom, Groningen/Amsterdam 2011. (Back)
11a. Inscription on a presumed 3rd century tombstone found in Ribchester: HIS TERRIS SIGITVR AEL MATRONA QVOND VIXIT AN XXVIII M II D VIII ET M IVL MAXIMVS FIL VIXIT AN L IVL MAXIMVS S C ALAE SAR CONIVX CONIVGI INCOMPARABILI ET FILIO PATRI PIENTISSIMO ET SOCAERE TENACISSIME MEMORIA P. "This earth seals up Aelia Matrona, who lived for twenty-eight years two months and eight days, and Marcus Julius, son of Maximus, fifty years old. Julius Maximus, singularius consularis of the Sarmatian Wing, husband of an incomparable wife, and son of a most devoted father, placed this in memory of the most steadfast of companions." (Back)
12. Grosvenor Museum, Chester, England. (Back)
13. Lupack, Alan, The Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend, 2005, pag. 13. (Back)
14. C. Scott Littleton & Linda A. Garland, From Scythia to Camelot. New York&London 1994. (Back)
15.Eupedia Origins, age, spread and ethnic association of European haplogroups and subclades. In the paragraph haplogroup G is mentioned in the last alinea under the headline Scythian G1 this possibility for G2a2. (Back) Jean Manco, Ancestral Journeys, The peopling of Europe from the first ventures to the Vikings, London 2013.
- Chang, Hua'an,常華安, The Eastward Migration of Sauromatians, 敕勒人的東遷:中國歷史最大疑案, Taipei China, 2013.
18. The following works served as the basis for the pages Alans, Sarmatians and Sarmatian traces.
  in order from recent to old:
- European Journal of Human Genetics (2013), 1-7, Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of
  Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings
, Maarten HD
  Larmuseau, Philippe Delorme, Patrick Germain, Nancy Vanderheyden, Anja Gilissen, Anneleen Van Geystelen,
  Jean-Jacques Cassiman and Ronny Decorte.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, Deutschlands unbekannte Jahrhunderte, Geheimnisse aus dem Grühmittelalter,
  Bonn, 2013.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, Die Sarmaten - Vergessene Väter des mittelalterlichen Europa 1, Sachshsen, Thüringer,
  Schwaben - Einst vona Sarmaten beherrscht?, Das Frümittelalter in Deutschland neu gesehen. Bonn 2011.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, Die Sarmaten - Vergessene Väter des mittelalterlichen Europa 2 Die Geheimnisse der
   Merowinger, Die sarmatische Herkunft der Dynatie und eine folgenreiche Geschichtsfälsunh. Bonn 2011.
- Reinhard Schmoeckel, König Chlodwig war kein Franke: Frankreichs und Deutschlands sarmatische Wurzeln,
   Bonn 2009.
- Nibelungenlied Een middeleeuws epos over liefde en wraak, uit het Middelduits vertaald, geannoteerd en ingeleid
  door Jaap van Vredendaal, uitg. Boom, Groningen/Amsterdam 2011.
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Sarmates et Alains face à Rome, Ie - Ve siècles, Illustoria, Clermont-Ferrand, 2010.
- Kinship and Y-Chromosome Analysis of 7th Century Human Remains: Novel DNA Extraction and Typing Procedure
  for Ancient Material, Daniel Vanek, Lenka Saskova, Forensic DNA Service, Prague (Cz.) and Hubert Koch,
  Bavarian State Department of Monuments and Sights, Regensburg (Germ.). Croat Med J. 2009 June; 50 (3).
- Umberto Roberto, Yann Rivière, für die deutsche Ausgabe: Jan Bemmann, Dieter Quast, wissenschaftliche
  Redaction, Rom und die Barbaren: Europa zur Zeit der Völkerwanderung, Bonn, 2008.
- Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, Cambridge University Press NY 2007.
- Walter Goffart, Barbarian Tides, The Migation Age and the later Roman Empire, University of Pensylvania
  Press, Philadelphia 2006.
- Alois Seidle, Deutsche Agrageschichte, Frankfurt am Main, 2006.
- Forschungen zur Thidreksaga, Untersuchingen zur Völkerwanderungszeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa, Band 3,
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Louvain 1760.
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