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MARRES - MARES

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Haplogroup G

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Ethnic Origin

The purpose of our DNA research

The purpose of our research was to demonstrate the kinship existing between the Marres family and the Mares family. In the process, we learned quite a bit about DNA research.

We also recognized it as an opportunity to investigate our own history prior to recorded history and realized that, by sharing our data with other researchers, we could contribute to the anthropological history of our country, and thereby to European and world history. This intrigued us, so we have continued pursuing our research. The results given below are discussed in detail, beginning with the original purpose of our research.

It has always been assumed that the Marres and the Mares family, both from Maastricht, are two branches of one family. This kinship could now be proven with DNA tests.

As for the family Marres there are many genealogical publications in the genealogic and heraldic publications. The relationship between the two families is made plausible in one of the publications. (1)

The emergence of DNA research in this century offered a wonderful opportunity to prove this assumed relationship. Five men of the Marres and Mares families participated in this genetic family research and did Y-DNA tests: Boed, Pieter and Gilbert Marres, and André and (the late) Guus Mares. We participated in the Several Projects. (2)

Pieter and Boed Marres are third cousins. Gilbert Marres of the Belgian branch is an fourth cousin. André and Guus Mares are eight cousins. The two branches Marres and Mares are 12th cousins.

Familial haplotypes

Here are the results of the Y-DNA test with 37 later 67 STR markers. This series is called haplotypes.

DYS markers in blue   -   DYS values in yellow  -   One genetic step in fawn   -   Two genetic steps in maroon.

  Name    Haplogr.  393 390 19a 19b 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
  h4  
YCA
  IIa  
YCA
  IIb  
456 607 576 570 CDY
  a  
CDY
  b  
442 438
  B. Marres   PF3177+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10
  G. Marres   ,, 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 17 33 39 11 10
A. Mares ,, 14 23 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 12
G. Mares ,, 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 32 38 11 11

The marker duplication 19a and 19b, with both the same value of 15, has been established for the first time with special techniques in the DNA sample from Boed Marres and is now believed to be present at all DYS19=15 samples in clade G2a2a. (3)

Genetic Distance

Genetic distance is the total number of mutations, between two sets of results. In general, it is found by adding the differences between each STR marker.

TMRCA

The time to the most recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA), is calculated on the basis of genetic distance. Every marker has an unique average rate of change, but when many markers are being considered, one can assume an average mutation rate. With 38 markers, one can assume 1 GD every seven generations. We used Dean Macgee's Y-DNA Comparison Utility from the ISOGG. (4)

Genetic Distance
ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A
Marres-B 38 2 5 6
Marres-G 2 38 5 6
Mares-G 5 5 38 3
Mares-A 6 6 3 38

Hybride allele mutation model is used.

The number of markers is shown in green.

Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (genetical)
ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A
Marres-B 38 224 384 384
Marres-G 224 38 480 480
Mares-G 384 440 38 320
Mares-A 384 480 320 38

From FTDNA derived Rates: 0.0054.
50% probability that the time
is no shorter or longer than indicated.
Average generation: 32 years.

Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (genealogical)
ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A
Marres-B 38 180 450 450
Marres-G 180 38 450 450
Mares-G 450 450 38 339
Mares-A 458 458 339 38

Birth date MRCA Marres/Mares is 1490
Birth date MRCA Mares is 1615
Birth date MRCA Marres is 1759
Average birth date participants is 1946

Proving Familial relationship

According to the family papers the actual genealogical distance between the two distant cousins in the Marres family and their MRCA is five generations. According to the genografic method of calculation it would be seven.

According to the family papers the actual genealogical distance between the two distant cousins in the Mares family and their MRCA is ten generations. According to the genografic method of calculation it would exactly the same, ten generations.

In the article on the Marres family publicated in 1990 in De Nederlandse Leeuw the expected genealogical distance between the contemporary Marres and Mares families and their presumed MRCA would be 14 generations. The genografic test results ossillate between 12 and 15. which falls exactly within the expected time frame.

In conclusion we can assert that there is convincing proof that the four men: two with the name Marres and two with the name Mares, do indeed have the common ancestor presumed in the literature, and so are members of the same family.

For the sake of completeness,
here are the 68 markers which two members, one of each branch, have in common.

DYS markers in blue   -   DYS values in yellow  -   One genetic step in fawn   -   Two genetic steps in maroon.

  NAME   393 390 19a 19b 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565 505 635
 B. Marres  14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 16 8 12 24 20 15 15 11 13 10 11 11 12 11 21
G. Mares 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 32 38 11 11 11 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 16 8 12 24 20 15 15 11 13 10 11 11 12 11 21

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Comparing haplotypes is very usefull to prove kinship between families within a period of time till at the utmost 1000 year, 30 generations. When tested with 67 markers the genetic distances should be lesser then 7. However the reliability decreases rapidly in time. Major reasons for this unreliability are return mutations; but more tricky is the phenomena of marker convergence in non related persons. To use the haplotype comparing you must have other indications of relationship, for instance genealogical information, mostly only present in noble and patrician families.

Comparison of haplotypes is only reliably when there is other evidence of kinship, in the form of genealogical and historical information, as it is often present in noble and patrician families. reliably only

Actually, it is remarkable that it is so beautifully true in our family. The geneticist Sykes gives a nice genografie of the Scottish clan Donald. This old-noble Scottish family has a well-documented family history that goes back into deep in the Middle Ages. In John, Lord of the Isles, who died in 1386, emerged three family branches that divide futher in many branches. From ten branches men let test their DNA

Noteworthy is the difference in the number of mutations per branch. In six hundred years, 20 to 22 generations, the number of mutations varied greatly; in ascending order: 1,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,4,5 in 38 markers.
Two men, separated by 39 generations, have together three mutations, but two other men, separated by 23 generation, have nine. The average number is correct, but here is also shown that the average mutation time is only useful for large numbers, but can't be used for determining a genealogical distance between two unknowns. (5) Our family has been fortunate to be really average.

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The familial Haplogroup   G2a2a1 - PF3177+

The demonstration of relationships over long periods of time is based on SNP mutations. The number of mutations shows the time to the first common ancestor. Two companies have been testing this for us. We began with the Geno2.0 beta test of National Geographic; followed by a comprehensive study done at Full Genomes. (6)

The analysis is done by YFull Y Chr Sequence Interpretation Service. We are placed in subgroup G2a2a1* Terminal SNPs: PF3153, PF3177, Z6290. These is estimated to be 9.240 years old. (7) We have 204 Private SNPs, of whom we share 5 with the Sardinian sample 148, so we form a provisional (unofficial) subgroup G2a2a1c - FGC6669+, estimated to be 8.200 years old. (8)

For the time being there are only two families in this group: the Marres, from the Netherlands, and the Turco family, Italians belonging to the Waldensian, the oldest in essence Preprotestant church, who emigrated from Sicilia in Italy to the US.

The Slootmaekers family from Lanaken, a Belgian-Limburg village 5 km. north of Maastricht, and the Nolet family, from Saint Germain near Namur in Wallonia are not fully SNP tested, but are predicted to belong in our subgroup. See for this page: G2a2a.

Mr. Ray Banks: There are about 130 G men in the Sardinian study. So I am happy to hear that a search of the singletons was productive in this case. Sample 148 does not have any shared SNPs. Four of the five singletons you share ........ These do seem to constitute a new subgroup under PF3177, and I have added these 5 to the spreadsheet and to the experimental tree. FGC6699 was selected as the most promising one since it was a clear read in the Sardinian and is in the a region sequenced in the Poznik study. You have 154 singletons, which translates to about 9240 yrs for the existence of PF3177. Big Y sequences half the chromome and those 5 shared items translate to abt 625 yrs. This is the second such early splitting noted in Sardinia. I do get the impression that G persons were an important part of the early peopling of Sardinia abt 7200 yrs ago. A certain type of haplo I persons were also likely with them early on. See: analysis of your Big Y results in the attached spreadsheet. (9)

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Time scale and the Landscape at the time of the split of the Kent and Brabant group
Landscape of North-west Europe 10,000 years before present Archeologic time scale of Europe

Here you see the Kent group, Hendon (H) and Dunham (D) on the right side of the Thames.
The Brabant group, Nolet (N), Marres (M) and Slootmaekers (S) left of the Maas. At the tome family pairs parted (10)

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Genografic Pedigree of Duchy of Brabant group
Geneagram-Marres-Mares-Nolet-Slootmaekers

We notice that the Nolet family has only one mutation since our common ancestor, where the Marres family has fout to six. The family Slootmaekers has two.

Our ancestor Johan Marres is born in 1370 and because of the small number of mutations in the other families, we expect the first common ancestor of the families Marres, Slootmaekers and Nolet has lived at the beginning of the second half of the Middle Ages.

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Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup

The mitochondrial DNA, MtDNA is inherited through the female egg and passed from the mother to her children. Sons and daughters both inherit MtDNA, but only daughters pass it on to their children.

For Boed Marres, his MtDNA follows an ascending line from mother to grandmother, etc., along the following family lines: Franquinet, Tielens, Corten, Becker, Geurts, Meyers to the oldest known female ancestor Maria Catharina Peussens, born about 1730 probably in Maastricht.

Full Genomes determined as Mt Haplogroup: N1b1a, Geno2: N1a’d’e’l and 23andMe: I1a1.
This means that it is quite uncertain. Moreover I1a1 is a subgroup of N1a1b1, which in turn seems quite illogical.

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Autosomal DNA
Dodecad project

The Dodecad project is an analysis of the autosomal DNA, or all the numbered chromosomes which do not determinate sex. A person receives half of his autosomal DNA from his father and the other half from his mother, so it is a mixture of the genes of his ancestors from both the paternal and maternal sides.

The genes are transferred in packages not piece by piece, so they often remain unchanged for generations. A comparison of gene packages can reveal relatives within a given period.

The packages are sometimes broken in pieces. Therefore, the smaller the pieces, the further the relationship.

This test revealed a distand cousin of Boed Marres, who has a common Marres ancestor more than 5 generations back. His maternal great grandmother was a Marres. Boed is also related to a Mr Becker in the USA whose great-great grandfather came from Germany. Boed's great-great-grandmother on his maternal grandmothers side was named Becker and her grandfather came from Germany. Are they of the same Family ?

Boeds known genealogical forfathers come from Maastricht and surroundings, within a 50 km radius of the city. Three generations back, some come from Germany and Wallonia and even further back, from Switzerland and France.

Autosomal DNA analysis

The origins of his ancestry are: (11).

West European

48.71%

Mediterranean

26.27%

East European

10.15%

West Asian

11.73%

South Asian

02.25%

Northwest African

00.89%

23andMe

23andMe is an American company using not only the genome and the Y-DNA but all chromosomes, i.e. the autosomal DNA, to investigate genetic disorders. Ancestry Painting is a pleasing by-product of their efforts. They test for ethnic origin, using the genotypes of 210 Americans (60 from Western European origin, 60 of African origin, and 90 of Asian origin) as references. This screening test is still being developed, and is presently only valid for American immigrants with a simple origin.

The Standard test says Boed is European: 99.9%, of which:
Northern European 68.5%,
Southern European 0.3%
nonspecific 31.3%.

The speculative test says he is 100% European, of which:
North European (they call that Caucasian) 91.5%
Southern European 5.9%
European nonspecific 1.8%.

His Northern European roots are :
French and German 37%
British 12.8%
Scandinavian 4.4%
Nonspecific 37.4%.

His Southern European roots are:
Italian 0.3%
Sardinian 0.1% (sic!)
Nonspecific 5.5%.

His Eastern European roots are 2.5%.

A previous consultation reported: It looks like you may have ancestry from Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and the Ukraine because large pieces of your DNA are identical to that of other 23andMe members who come from those places.

The Genografic Project

The Genografic Project yielded the following results:

Mediterranean: 41 %,
North European: 40 %
South Asian: 18 %.

A interesting test is that of the presence of Neanderthal blood

23andMe wrote: You have an estimated 2.8% Neanderthal DNA, which puts you in the 71th percentile among Northern European 23andMe members. The average of their participants is 2.7% The European average is 2.6%.

In the Genografic project his Neanderthal percentage is 1.8% and his Denisovan percentage: 3%; this added together is: 4.8%.

Neanderthaler (General Photographic Agency/Getty Images)

Neanderthaler - General Photographic Agency/Getty Images

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Ethnic Origin

Some companies offer the opportunity to let test your ancestral origins. They give general indications based on mostly only the first twelve STR markers of your haplotype. Those are indeed the most consistant, and they give an vaque and global indication.

FTDNA: Ancestral Origins Y-DNA

We tried the option Ancestral Origins from the large FTDNA database, then consisting of 81,580 individuals. They show the ancestral country of origin of people who have the same, or slightly different haplotypes. The biggest problem is that persons who are totally not related can have the near same haplotype. A second problem encountered in this database is a biased selection of participants; most of the men tested are either British or American, with almost two-thirds of them originating in Great Britain; for example there are fewer men from German origin than of Irish origin. This means that this test can give only a vague indication. Nonetheless, with the greatest restraint, we publish here the results from the matches with the first 12 Y-STR's of Boed.

In his first twelve markers he is fully congruent with an Egyptian an Iraqi a Turk and an Italian.
One mutation is found, from the highest to the lowest rates, in these countries: Macedonia 2,3%, Georgia (1,5%), Armenia (0,7%), Portugal and Bulgaria (0,4%), Hungary and Italia (0,3%), Greece (0,25%) Saudi Arabia (0,2%), The Netherlands and Spain (0,1%),and Germany, Great Britain and Russia (<0,1%).

Genebase - Indigenous DNA

The Indigenous DNA section of the Canadian GENEBASE contains data from anthropological publications, in contrast to the commercially collected data from the FTDNA.

The Y-DNA of Boed Marres is compared with a dataset of 91 populations in 12 magazines which tested 15 markers (12), and repeated with a data set of 88 populations in 11 journals. (13)
These results are in listed in the columns below, with the kinship score expressed as the relative match index (RMI), the higher the number, the higher the agreement.

1. Tirol - Austria
2. Nowgorodskaja - Northwest Russia
3. Vojvodina (former Pannonia/Sarmatia)
4. Adyghes, Caucasus
5. Abchazia, Georgia
6. Vologodskaja - North-Russia
7. North Croatia
8. Circassians - Caucasus
9. Inguchetians - Caucasus

76
44
41
26
21
13
13
11
5

1. Tirol - Austria
2. Nowgorodskaja - Northwest Russia
3. Vologodskaja - North-Russia
4. North Croatia
5. Abchazia, Georgia
6. Vojvodina (former Pannonia/Sarmatia)
7. Inguchetia - Kaukasus
8. Centraal Poland
9. Adyghes, Caucasus

76
58
18
17
14
13
8
7
7

Sörenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation

Y-Chromosome Search Results shows the closest genetic matches at 25 of 35 common markers with three men and a most likely TMRCA of 47 generations or 1460 years with: a Slovenian, a Pakistani and a New Yorker.

Conclusion

Determination of the geographical and ethnic origin certainly is still in its infancy. Perhaps this is for descendants of immigrants of unknown origin already to use.

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Frontiers in Genealogy and Heraldry

Geneografie.nl

Genografy in the Netherlands

Thirtieth International Congress for
genealogical and heraldic Sciences
September 24 to 28, 2012 in Maastricht
  
   International Congress for genealogical and heraldic Sciences September 24 to 28, 2012 in Maastricht

Congress Maastricht

Dr. Wim Penninx

Genetic Variation in the Netherlands in the Last 2000 Years.

The opening lecture discusses the variants in the Y-DNA of various branches of the Marres/Mares family, who share a most recent common ancestor born in 1490. The haplotypes are compared with those of near and distant relatives from Maastricht to Iran.

He reviews how small mutations in the Y-DNA could demonstrate near and distant family relationships, which would not be possible with genealogical and historical research alone.

He also demonstrates familial relationships as far back as the Middle Ages and even Neolithic times. The results of DNA testing in the Marres family serve as examples.

Genetic Variation in the Netherlands in the Last 2000 Years-a

Lecture Dr. W. Penninx

Genetic Variation in the Netherlands in the Last 2000 Years-b

A Slide of the DNA of the Marres/Mares clan.

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last updated:

English translation by Miriam Jo Dunham