Gallia Belgica

Ambiorix rex Tungrorum

G - FGC6618

Gallia Belgica

Eburones et Atuatuci 60 BC - deinde Tungri

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The Benelux clade

G-FGC6618

This clade originated around 7,800 years ago from G-Y14935. This is described on G-FGC6669.

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It is becoming increasingly clear that the ancestor of this clade lived in the Levant and came with the group of Anatolian agrarians that entered Europe about 8.200 ago and brought there the Neolithic culture.

They probably lived on the coast of Anatolia, and will initially have stayed together. The oldest known branch of the Great-grandfather clade, an FGC6669* man, dates back to 10,200 years ago. his descendants now live in Sardinia.

From the father clade Y1435 a branche arises 8,000 years ago of which descendants now live in Saudi Arabia. The great trek to Europe had already taken place.

Some time later about 7,800 years ago, our branch is formed at the same time as his brother M286. The brother branch has descendants in Armenia, Georgia, Lebanon, Cyprus and England. They split apart 4,400 years ago.

It is very likely that our ancestors lived during the Neolithisation of Europe on the Mediterranean coasts and entered Iberia and Western Europe. A group went in France north along the Rhône and the loire to the French Atlantic coast. In Normandy lies their most famous center La Hoguette.and they meet the continental LBK branch in the Hesbaye. Both groups may have arrived at nearly the same time.

They arrived in England about 6000 years ago. It is shown that the British Neolithic people derived much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers who originally followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal and likely entered Britain from northwestern mainland Europe. (1a)

But we may also be descendants of a veteran of a Roman legion. After their dismissal, they were given a piece of land after the usual 25-year service. Often that was where they last had served. We think he may have served on the northern border to guard it against invasions from the East.

It is also possible that we descended from a trader who settled in the Meuse Valley. The Meuse has always been an important route for the trade from the Mediterranean Sea along the Rhône to the north, and then over the Meuse to England. Maastricht was a major trading city in Roman times and also in Merovingian times, as was the city of Namur. The merchants were the most traveling non-military in the Roman Empire.

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Split in three in the time of the Merovingians

About 700 AD our clade split in three. The Marres and Slootmaekers families in Maastricht, and Nolet in Namur. It may be that they originate from a joint ancestor. (1)

The three families each have their own defining SNP. (2)

G2a2a1a1b1 - FGC6629

The Dutch family
Marres / Mares

G2a2a1a1b2 - FGC34750

The Belgian family
Nolet

G2a2a1a1b3 - FGC42426

De Belgian family
Slootmaekers

These are there Haplotypes

DYS markers in blue field - DYS values in light yellow field - one genetic step higher in fawn - two steps higher in maroon - one step lower in light green - two steps lower in green.

  Name     Clade   393 390 19a 19b 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
  h4  
YCA
  IIa  
YCA
  IIb  
456 607 576 570 CDY
  a  
CDY
  b  
442 438
B. Marres FGC6629+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10
G. Marres FGC6629+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 17 33 39 11 10
A. Mares FGC6629+ 14 23 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 12
G. Mares FGC6629+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 32 38 11 11
F. Nolet FGC34750+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 17 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 28 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 10
M. Slootmaekers FGC42426+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9 9 11 11 23 14 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 37 11 10
STR marker values tested at Full Genomes and determined by YSEQ
of the three Y15220 :   Marres – Nolet – Slootmaekers

DYS markers in blue   -   DYS values in yellow   -   Not tested or no results in White.
One unit higher in fawn   -   two units higher in maroon   -   one unit lower in light green   -   two units lower in green.

  NAME   393 390 19 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
h4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Marres 14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 16 8 12 24 20 15 15 11 13 10 11 11 12
Nolet 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 16 22 29 12 12 13 14 11 12 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 0 20 22 15 10 16 8 12 23g 15 11 11 11 11
Slootmaekers 14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9 9 11 11 23 14 22 29 12 13 13 14 11 12 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 37 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 11 8 11 10 21 22 14 10 12 17 8 12 23g 20 15 11 11 11 12
Ancestral STR haplotype - Y14918 determined by YSEQ
  Full Genomes   393 390 19 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
h4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Ancestral 14 22 15 10 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 11 11 23 16 22 28 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 11 8 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 14 10 12 16 8 12 23g 20 15 13 11 13 10 11 11 12
Pre-ancestral 13 22 15 10 11 13 11 13 11 28 16 11 11 23 16 21 28 10 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 11 8 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 14 10 12 16 8 13 23g 21 14 13 11 14 10 11 11 12

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The STR Tree of the Benelux group
Genogram-Marres-Mares-Nolet-Slootmaekers

In the family Marres G and B have a common ancestor five generations ago. They both have one single mutation. Expect is also 1 to 2.

In the family Mares, A and G have a common ancestor 10 generations ago. A has 4 mutations and G has 3. It is expected here 3 or 4. This fits nicely.

The branches Marres and Mares have a common ancestor 15 generations ago. The number of mutations is, respectively, B 2, G 2, A 4, and G 3 mutations. It is anticipated here 5. This is clearly at all less then expected.

The families Marres, Nolet and Slootmaekers have a common ancestor that lived between 30 to 60 generations ago. Counting STR mutations over such a long time is irrelevant because of convergence, what means parallel and reverse mutations. We will see a seemingly small number of mutations and a seemingly minor genetic distance.

Genetic distance

ID  Mrr B   Mrr G   Mr G   Mr A   Nolet   Sltm. 
Marres-B 38 2 5 6 4 7
Marres-G 2 38 5 6 4 7
Mares-G 5 5 38 3 5 8
Mares-A 6 6 3 38 6 9
Nolet 4 4 5 6 38 5
Slootmaekers 7 7 8 9 5 38

In black the Genetic Distance. In green the number of markers used.

We can see that using STR mutations are useful for dating genetic distance between samples up to about 1000 years ago, but earlier than this, accuracy falls away, and using SNPs becomes the more reliable method.

The time estimated with STRs

ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A Nolet Sltm.
Marres-B 37 210 360 360 300 360
Marres-G 210 37 450 450 360 450
Mares-G 360 450 37 300 450 630
Mares-A 360 450 300 37 450 630
Nolet 300 360 450 450 37 300
Slootmaek. 360 450 630 630 300 37

The time in years genealogical

ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A
Marres-B 188 456 456
Marres-G 188 456 456
Mares-G 456 456 330
Mares-A 466 466 347

The time estimated with SNP's

ID  Y Tree  YFull indiv. YFull gem. R. Banks
Marres 1350 1958 1350 2000
Nolet 1350 1222 1350 2000
Slootmaekers 1350 931 1350 2000

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G-FGC6618_tree

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Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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