Gallia Belgica

Ambiorix rex Tungrorum

G - FGC6618

Gallia Belgica

Eburones et Atuatuci 60 BC - deinde Tungri

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The Benelux G clade

G2a2a1a1b-FGC6618

The founder of this clade lived between 8.200 and 7,200 BP. G-M286 that elsewhere is described.

He will have lived in the old G homeland Anatolia. The oldest archaeological European G2a2-DNA is found in Greece and the Balkans and dates from 7,800 BP, From our brother clade M286 live nowaday descendants in modern Western Turkey, on Cyprus, in the Lebanon, Armenia and there is a number of old English families.

In that time started a major revolution in Europe. The hunter-gatherer lifestyle was replaced in a time span of some more than one thousand years by a Neolithic agrarian society that brought into Europe the Neolithic Linear Band Keramic Culture, by an influx of Anatolians with the Y-DNA haplogroup G. We belong to this haplogroup but from our subgroup are never archeological remains found, nor branches known.

It is possible that our ancestors went along with the Northern Neolithic group to Hungary and further along the Danube where their offspring, a millennium later, reached the loess soils of what is now the Benelux.

But it is also possible that he and his descendants have belonged to the Southern Neolithic group that went along the coasts the Mediterranean to populate Italy, Spain and the great islands as Sardinia, as did a FGC6669 family and brought La culture Runanée to France et la culture Omalien in Belgium.

But it is also likely that our ancestors lived on the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean for thousands of years and first in Roman times reached the Benelux. We may be descendants from a merchant who settled in the Meuse valley, the trade route over water from the Mediterranean along the Rhône, Saône and Meuse to the North Sea. Both Namur and the civitas Traiectum ad Mosam, Maastricht, were in the early Roman times already important trading centers. Through Maastricht went also the great Roman road from Cologne to Bavay and futher to Enland.

Or are we descendants of a legionary. They often took up land after completing their service near the place they last were stationed. Both Namur and Maastricht lay at the late northern border of the Roman Empire and had garrisons.

Nothing is known about our adventures from the beginning of the Neolithic to the Merovingian period. No archeolische remains of ancestors or relatives and no side branches are present. It is, so to speak, a thin wire that connects us to the prehistory.

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Split into three in the time of the Merovingians

In late Merovingian time they split in the three families. The Marres are known from the Middle Ages as traders who lived in Maastricht and who invested in land around the city. The Slootmaekers family lives also in Maastricht and the Nolet will be descended from a son living in the second trader center Namur.

The Y chromosome of these three families has been fully investigated (sequenced). They have 112 SNP's common. The Marres and Nolet families have both 10 own SNP's, Slootmaekers has 11 SNP's.

Based on the number of own SNPs of Marres and Nolet, the time that their common ancestor lived was calculated by Ray Banks between 2500 and 1500 years ago. (1)

Later with the then also known SNPs of Martin Slootmaekers it is at about the beginning the Carolingian times. It is even possible that the three families came from one and the same common ancestor.

In the 10 millennia before that are, to our knowledge, not created branches. And it seems that the earlier ancestors for a long time lived in a small family group.

This are the three families, each with their own defining SNP.

G2a2a1a1b1 - FGC6634

The Dutch family
Marres / Mares

G2a2a1a1b2 - FGC34750

The Belgian family
Nolet

G2a2a1a1b3 - FGC42426

De Belgian family
Slootmaekers

These are there Haplotypes

DYS markers in blue field - DYS values in light yellow field - one genetic step higher in fawn - two steps higher in maroon - one step lower in light green - two steps lower in green.

  Name     Clade   393 390 19a 19b 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
  h4  
YCA
  IIa  
YCA
  IIb  
456 607 576 570 CDY
  a  
CDY
  b  
442 438
B. Marres FGC6634+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10
G. Marres FGC6634+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 17 33 39 11 10
A. Mares FGC6634+ 14 23 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 12
G. Mares FGC6634+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 10 20 20 15 14 17 18 32 38 11 11
F. Nolet FGC34750+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 17 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 28 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 38 11 10
M. Slootmaekers FGC42426+ 14 22 15 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9 9 11 11 23 14 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 37 11 10
STR marker values tested at Full Genomes and determined by YSEQ
of the three Y15220 :   Marres – Nolet – Slootmaekers

DYS markers in blue   -   DYS values in yellow   -   Not tested or no results in White.
One unit higher in fawn   -   two units higher in maroon   -   one unit lower in light green   -   two units lower in green.

  NAME   393 390 19 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
h4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Marres 14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 23 16 22 29 12 13 14 14 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 40 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 16 8 12 24 20 15 15 11 13 10 11 11 12
Nolet 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 9 9 11 11 16 22 29 12 12 13 14 11 12 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 8 16 16 8 11 10 8 11 10 0 20 22 15 10 16 8 12 23g 15 11 11 11 11
Slootmaekers 14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9 9 11 11 23 14 22 29 12 13 13 14 11 12 20 20 15 14 17 18 33 37 11 10 11 8 16 16 8 11 11 8 11 10 21 22 14 10 12 17 8 12 23g 20 15 11 11 11 12
Ancestral STR haplotype - Y14918 determined by YSEQ
  Full Genomes   393 390 19 391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
460 GATA
h4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565
Ancestral 14 22 15 10 11 12 11 12 11 28 16 11 11 23 16 22 28 11 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 11 8 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 14 10 12 16 8 12 23g 20 15 13 11 13 10 11 11 12
Pre-ancestral 13 22 15 10 11 13 11 13 11 28 16 11 11 23 16 21 28 10 11 20 20 15 14 17 18 11 10 11 8 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 14 10 12 16 8 13 23g 21 14 13 11 14 10 11 11 12

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The STR Tree of the Benelux group
Genogram-Marres-Mares-Nolet-Slootmaekers

In the family Marres G and B have a common ancestor five generations ago. They both have one single mutation. Expect is also 1 to 2.

In the family Mares, A and G have a common ancestor 10 generations ago. A has 4 mutations and G has 3. It is expected here 3 or 4. This fits nicely.

The branches Marres and Mares have a common ancestor 15 generations ago. The number of mutations is, respectively, B 2, G 2, A 4, and G 3 mutations. It is anticipated here 5. This is clearly at all less then expected.

The families Marres, Nolet and Slootmaekers have a common ancestor that lived between 30 to 60 generations ago. Counting STR mutations over such a long time is irrelevant because of convergence, what means parallel and reverse mutations. We will see a seemingly small number of mutations and a seemingly minor genetic distance.

Genetic distance

ID  Mrr B   Mrr G   Mr G   Mr A   Nolet   Sltm. 
Marres-B 38 2 5 6 4 7
Marres-G 2 38 5 6 4 7
Mares-G 5 5 38 3 5 8
Mares-A 6 6 3 38 6 9
Nolet 4 4 5 6 38 5
Slootmaekers 7 7 8 9 5 38

In black the Genetic Distance. In green the number of markers used.

We can see that using STR mutations are useful for dating genetic distance between samples up to about 1000 years ago, but earlier than this, accuracy falls away, and using SNPs becomes the more reliable method.

The time estimated with STRs

ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A Nolet Sltm.
Marres-B 38 210 360 360 300 300
Marres-G 210 38 450 450 360 360
Mares-G 360 450 38 300 540 450
Mares-A 360 450 300 38 540 450
Nolet 300 360 450 450 38 360
Slootmaekers 300 300 540 540 360 38

The time in years genealogical

ID Mrr B Mrr G Mr G Mr A
Marres-B gen. 179 442 442
Marres-G 182 gen. 445 445
Mares-G 450 466 gen. 331
Mares-A 466 466 347 gen.

The time estimated with SNP's

ID  Y Tree  YFull indiv. YFull gem. R. Banks
Marres 1350 1958 1350 2000
Nolet 1350 1222 1350 2000
Slootmaekers 1350 931 1350 2000

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On this site treated G - Subgroups
All
Haplogroups
G
M201
G2a2a
PF3147
G2a2a1a1
FGC6669
G2a2a1a1b1~
FGC6634

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Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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